CLAT Syllabus

It has been decided by CLAT Organizing body that CLAT 2019 will be conducted in offline mode. However it is still under consideration. The paper will have 200 questions from five different subjects including English (Comprehension), General Knowledge & Current Affairs, Elementary Mathematics (Numerical Ability), Legal Aptitude and Logical Reasoning. Scope and coverage of questions under different subject areas:

UG Programme

Scope and coverage of questions under different subject areas:

  1. English including comprehension:
    The English section will test the candidate’s proficiency in English based on comprehension passages and grammar. In the comprehension section, candidates will be assessed on their understanding of the passage and its central theme, meanings of words used therein, etc. The grammar section requires correction of incorrect grammatical sentences, filling of blanks in sentences with appropriate words, etc.
  2. General Knowledge and Current Affairs:
    The General knowledge will be evaluated on the general awareness including static general knowledge. Questions on current affairs will test the candidate’s on their knowledge of national and international current affairs.
  3. Mathematics:
    This section will test the candidate’s knowledge on elementary mathematics, i.e., maths taught upto 10th Class/Standard.
  4. Legal Aptitude:
    This section will test the candidate’s interest towards the study of law, research aptitude and problem solving ability. Questions may include legal propositions (described in the paper), and a set of facts to which the said proposition has to be applied. Some propositions may not be “true” in the real sense, candidates will have to assume the “truth” of these propositions and answer the questions accordingly.
  5. Logical Reasoning:
    The purpose of the logical reasoning section is to test the candidate’s ability to identify patterns, logical links and rectify illogical arguments. It may include a variety of logical reasoning questions such as syllogisms, logical sequences, analogies, etc. However, visual reasoning will not be tested.
The pattern of Question Paper for the UG Courses in CLAT 2019

(a)

Maximum Marks

  200

(b)

Duration of CLAT 2019 Exam

  02:00 Hours

(c)

Multiple-Choice Questions

  200 questions of one mark each

(d)

Subject areas with weight-age:

1. English including comprehension

40 Marks

2. General Knowledge and Current Affairs

50 Marks

3. Elementary Mathematics (Numerical Ability)

20 Marks

4. Legal Aptitude

50 Marks

5. Logical Reasoning

40 Marks

(e)

Negative Marking

  0.25 Mark for each wrong answer

The pattern of Question Paper and syllabus for the PG Programme in CLAT 2019

The pattern of the question paper for admission to the Post-Graduate Course for CLAT 2019 is as under:

(a)

Maximum Marks

  150

(b)

Duration of CLAT 2019 Exam

  02:00 Hours

(c)

Multiple-Choice Questions

  150 questions of one mark each

(d)

Syllabus

 Questions will be asked from the following areas of Law:

1. Constitutional Law

50 Marks

2. Jurisprudence

50 Marks

3. Other Law Subjects such as Contract, Torts, Criminal Law, International Law, IPR etc.

50 Marks

(e)

Negative Marking

  0.25 Mark will be deducted for each wrong answer

HOW CLAT 2019 GOING OFFLINE CAN BENEFIT YOU ?

The announcement that CLAT 2019 is going to be conducted in the conventional paper-pencil mode has come as a shocker to many students as it sounds like a throwback to the olden days of competitive exams.

But, this could be a blessing in disguise for many of you as an offline test carries a lot of benefits as compared to an online test. Listed below are some of them:

1. EASE OF BROWSING THROUGH :
In an offline test, it is easy to move to any page and question of the test, hence enabling you to score more as compared to an online test.

2. ZERO TECHNICAL GLITCHES: CLAT 18 was a nightmare for many a student because of the technical issues it threw at them. Many deserving students lost their chances of getting into an NLU and had to waste a precious year of preparation. There is no room for technical glitches in offline papers which is heartening.

3. LESS PRESSURE DUE TO ABSENCE OF THE ONLINE TIMER:

Many students have reported that the reverse counting that goes on the online timer increases their heartbeat and creates a lot of pressure which will not be the case now.
Although this timer will be replaced by wrist watches, students are less likely to look into the watch every now and then and take unnecessary pressure on them.

4. INCREASE IN READING SPEED: Text written on a paper is easy to read and understand than that on the computer screen. Also underlining the important parts for further reference becomes easy now.
Your newspaper reading habit will now yield better results

5. ROUGH WORK BECOMES EASY:
Although, even in offline tests rough sheets are given to students, there is nothing easier than scribbling on the question paper itself which gives you supersonic speeds in the exam. This is possible now.

These were some of the benefits of an offline test over an online test and if prepared in the right way, you can ace it in style.

DOWNSIDES OF AN OFFLINE TEST:

1. INCONSISTENCY BY THE INVIGILATORS :

The timing, i.e start and end, of an offline paper is generally in hands of the invigilators and some of them give a minute or two more to a classroom whereas some distribute the papers late and hence, steal the students’ precious minutes. These inconsistencies will now recur with the adoption of the offline paper.

2. SCORCHING HEAT AND CLASSROOMS: An online test is generally conducted in air-conditioned computer labs opposed to the offline tests which are conducted generally in uncomfortable government schools and colleges which makes it difficult for students to handle the May heat.

3. CHEATING AND CENTRE RIGGING ISSUES: It has happened many a times in the past that mass copying and centre rigging issues have take place in some of the notorious states.
These issues may recur.

4. DELAY IN RESULTS: Offline paper checking is a tedious process and hence may delay the results which is never the case in online tests.

 

For CLAT 2019 Preparation & Personal Mentorship Call: +91-8889344974

Legal Reasoning Quiz for Workshop

Answer 10 Simple Legal Reasoning Questions and enroll yourself for 2 Days Legal Terms & Maxims workshop

Name
Contact No.
Email
1.

‘Delegatus non potest delegare’ means

2.

Principle: Frustration of contract means happening of an event by which the contract becomes impossible of performance. Such a contract becomes void upon the happening of an impossible event.


Facts: A contracts to take in cargo for B at a foreign port. A's Government afterwards declares war against B's country. Does the contract become void on declaration of war?

3.

Principles:


(i) A contract is made by undue influence when one party to the contract is in a position to dominate the other's other will and causes the other party to enter into the contract.


(ii) A contract induced by undue influence is voidable by the party subjected to undue Influence.


Facts: A man weakened by age and disease agrees to pay his medical attendant an unreasonable sum for his services, as a result of his influence over the old man. Can the old man avoid the contract?

4.

Under the Eighth Schedule, how many languages are mentioned?

5.

Ceteris Paribus means :

6.

Principle: Even if the sovereign functions of the State are discharged negligently, the State is not vicariously liable in tort.


Facts: A was a trader in gold. He was arrested by police and several articles, including gold were seized by the police and kept in the malkhana. Later he was discharged and his things were returned to him except gold which was stolen from the malkhana .  Is the State liable?

7.

Principles:


(i) No fault liability means liability of a person even without any negligent act on his part and even if he has taken due care and caution.


(ii) If a person brings and keeps any dangerous thing on his land, then he is liable for any damage caused if the thing escapes.


Facts : A branch of tree growing on A's land overhanging on the highway suddenly fell on B's vehicle passing along the highway. A was careful with pruning the branches as and when it was required. B sued A for damages. Is B liable?

8.

Principle: Any act done in good faith without the consent of another person and for his benefit is not an offence. He must not intend to commit an offence.


Facts: Z is thrown from his horse and is unconscious. A, a surgeon finds that Z needs to be operated upon  immediately. A, not intending to cause Z's death performs the surgery as a result of which Z dies. Is A guilty of any offence?

9.

According to the Constitution, under Article 18(1), no title shall be conferred by the State except:

10.

Principle: An injury caused by an activity within the statutory authority of an agency cannot give rise to a tort claim.


Facts: The road between Park Circus and Park Street in Kolkata has developed a series of potholes and around half a day's work is required to repair it. The Municipal Corporation of Kolkata blocks off the road and repairs it from 8 am to 6 pm. As a result of the blockage, several people are late for work. Some of them particularly suffer tremendous loss as they are late for an important meeting. They bring a suit for nuisance against the MCK. Will they succeed?


CLAT 2019 Exam Pattern & Syllabus

CLAT 2019 Exam Pattern

Candidates should check this section to know about CLAT exam pattern details of UG & PG courses including mode, duration, marking scheme, negative marking, etc.

  • Exam Date: The examination will be held on 12th May 2019.
  • Mode: The examination will be conducted in online mode (computer-based test).
  • Duration: The exam duration will be two hours.
  • Type of Questions: Multiple choice/Objective type questions will be asked in the exam.
  • Number of Questions: Total 200 questions (for UG) & 150 questions (for PG) will be asked in the examination.
  • Total Marks: The question paper will be of 200 marks (for UG) & 150 marks (for PG).
  • Marking Scheme: In correct response, one mark will be allotted to the candidates.
  • Negative Marking: For the incorrect answer, 0.25 marks will be deducted.
Courses Subjects Marks Duration
For UG courses (Integrated) English including comprehension 40 2 hours
General Knowledge and Current Affairs 50
Elementary Mathematics (Numerical Ability) 20
Legal Aptitude 50
Logical Reasoning 40
For PG Courses Constitutional Law 50 2 hours
Jurisprudence 50
Other Law Subjects such as Contract, Torts, Criminal Law, International Law, IPR etc. 50

CLAT Syllabus 2019

The CLAT 2019 syllabus of UG courses will be comprised of the following sections, i.e. English including Comprehension, General Knowledge, and Current Affairs, Mathematics, Legal Aptitude & Logical Reasoning.

For PG courses, candidates can study from these sections, i.e. Constitutional Law, Jurisprudence & Other Law Subjects.

Brief syllabus is given below:

English including comprehension

It includes comprehension passages and grammar such as the meanings of words used therein, understanding of the passage, filling of blanks in sentences with appropriate words, correction of incorrect grammatical sentences, etc.

General Knowledge and Current Affairs

It includes general awareness such as static general knowledge, questions on national and international current affairs, etc.

Mathematics

This test will check the candidate’s knowledge on elementary mathematics (maths study in class 10th).

Legal Aptitude

This test will be evaluated to check interest of candidates towards the study of law, problem-solving ability, legal propositions (described in the paper), research aptitude etc.

Logical Reasoning

It includes syllogisms, identifies patterns, logical sequences, rectifies illogical arguments, logical links, analogies, etc.

CLAT Preparation Tips

To crack any entrance exam, preparation is compulsory. Check below, to know some preparation tips & tricks for How to prepare for CLAT exam:

  • Time management is the most important factor for any exam preparation. So divide your time for each section including revision.
  • Prepare from some good CLAT Exam books which all are related to the subjects and keep in touch with day to day news.
  • Try to solve last year’s question papers & sample papers for CLAT to get an idea about the examination.
  • Candidates also practice for the different online mock tests. It helps the candidates to achieve good marks in the exam.
  • Make short notes which include important tricks & formulas.

CLAT 2019: Application Form, Exam Dates, Eligibility & Syllabus

CLAT 2019 Exam Dates have been released now. The exam will be conducted for admission to undergraduate & postgraduate law programmes. This year, CLAT Exam will be managed by the National Law University Odisha, Cuttack (NLUO). It is a national level entrance examination. It is managed by the 19 Indian National Law Universities (NLUs) on a rotation basis. On the basis of CLAT scores, candidates can also get admission into various government & private law colleges across the country. Check here complete information about CLAT 2019 exam dates, application form, eligibility, exam pattern, syllabus, etc.

CLAT 2019 Exam Dates

In this section, we are providing a tentative schedule of CLAT 2019 Exam Dates. Whenever the official CLAT exam 2019 dates announced we will update it here:

Events Dates (Tentative)
Admission Notification Release 3rd week of December 2018
Application Form Availability 1st January 2019
Last date for form submission 31st March 2019 (11:59 PM)
Downloading of Admit Card Starts 3rd week of April 2019
Date of CLAT Entrance Exam 12th May 2019 (3:00 PM to 5:00 PM)
Answer Key Release 3rd week of May 2019
Representation of questions or key Till 3rd week of May 2019
Uploading of amended answer key (if required) 4th week of May 2019
Result/Merit List Declaration Last week of May 2019
First  Indicative Seat Allocation Publication 1st week of June 2019
Date for payment of counselling fee Till 2nd week of June 2019

CLAT Application Form 2019

Candidates check here about CLAT 2019 application form releasing mode, date of availability, required documents to upload & other details:

  • The application form will be available only through online mode from the official website.
  • CLAT Registration 2019 will be started from the 1st January to 31st March 2019.
  • Only one application will be filled by the candidate.
  • Upload your scanned photograph (Dimensions: 200×230 pixels & Size: 20KB to 50KB), Signature (Dimensions:  140×60 pixels & Size: 10KB to 20KB) and Specially Abled Persons (SAP) certificate (If required).
  • There will be no need to send a hard copy of the filled application to the CLAT office.
  • After successful form submission, no alteration/editing in the online application will be done.

Application Fee:

  • Candidates should submit Rs. 4000 as an application fee.
  • For SC/ST category, it will be Rs. 3500.
  • The fee payment will be done through credit card/debit card/net banking/pay wallet/RuPay, etc.
  • Candidates will also make payment through offline mode (Bank Challan).
  • The fee is non-refundable and non-adjustable.
Category Fee
General/OBC/Specially Abled Persons (SAP) & other categories Rs. 4000 + extra charges
Scheduled Caste (SC)/Scheduled Tribe (ST) Rs. 3500 + extra charges

CLAT Eligibility Criteria 2019

Candidates should check the given eligibility criteria to apply for the CLAT exam. The complete details about CLAT 2019 eligibility are given here:

Nationality:

  • Indian National/NRI/NRI Sponsored candidates can apply.
  • NRI/NRI Sponsored candidates can apply for those NLUs where such category is admitted.
  • Foreign National candidates not need to appear for CLAT exam, they can apply directly to the concerned institutions.

Age Criteria:

  • Upper Age Limit: There will be no upper age limit to apply for UG Integrated & PG courses.

Qualification Criteria:

  • Appearing Candidates: Candidates who are appearing in the qualifying exam are also eligible.
Courses Eligibility
Qualifying Exam Minimum Marks
For UG Integrated Courses Pass 10+2 examination from the recognized board. Secured minimum 45% marks (for Unreserved/OBC/Specially Abled Persons (SAP) and other categories) & 40% marks (for SC/ST categories).
For PG Courses Pass LLB/5 years Integrated LLB (Hons.)/any other equivalent examination. Secured minimum 55% marks (for Unreserved/OBC/Specially Abled Persons (SAP) and other categories) & 50% marks (for SC/ST categories).

CLAT 2019 Exam Pattern

Candidates should check this section to know about CLAT exam pattern details of UG & PG courses including mode, duration, marking scheme, negative marking, etc.

  • Exam Date: The examination will be held on 12th May 2019.
  • Mode: The examination will be conducted in online mode (computer-based test).
  • Duration: The exam duration will be two hours.
  • Type of Questions: Multiple choice/Objective type questions will be asked in the exam.
  • Number of Questions: Total 200 questions (for UG) & 150 questions (for PG) will be asked in the examination.
  • Total Marks: The question paper will be of 200 marks (for UG) & 150 marks (for PG).
  • Marking Scheme: In correct response, one mark will be allotted to the candidates.
  • Negative Marking: For the incorrect answer, 0.25 marks will be deducted.
Courses Subjects Marks Duration
For UG courses (Integrated) English including comprehension 40 2 hours
General Knowledge and Current Affairs 50
Elementary Mathematics (Numerical Ability) 20
Legal Aptitude 50
Logical Reasoning 40
For PG Courses Constitutional Law 50 2 hours
Jurisprudence 50
Other Law Subjects such as Contract, Torts, Criminal Law, International Law, IPR etc. 50

CLAT Syllabus 2019

The CLAT 2019 syllabus of UG courses will be comprised of the following sections, i.e. English including Comprehension, General Knowledge, and Current Affairs, Mathematics, Legal Aptitude & Logical Reasoning.

For PG courses, candidates can study from these sections, i.e. Constitutional Law, Jurisprudence & Other Law Subjects.

Brief syllabus is given below:

English including comprehension

It includes comprehension passages and grammar such as the meanings of words used therein, understanding of the passage, filling of blanks in sentences with appropriate words, correction of incorrect grammatical sentences, etc.

General Knowledge and Current Affairs

It includes general awareness such as static general knowledge, questions on national and international current affairs, etc.

Mathematics

This test will check the candidate’s knowledge on elementary mathematics (maths study in class 10th).

Legal Aptitude

This test will be evaluated to check interest of candidates towards the study of law, problem-solving ability, legal propositions (described in the paper), research aptitude etc.

Logical Reasoning

It includes syllogisms, identifies patterns, logical sequences, rectifies illogical arguments, logical links, analogies, etc.

CLAT Preparation Tips

To crack any entrance exam, preparation is compulsory. Check below, to know some preparation tips & tricks for How to prepare for CLAT exam:

  • Time management is the most important factor for any exam preparation. So divide your time for each section including revision.
  • Prepare from some good CLAT Exam books which all are related to the subjects and keep in touch with day to day news.
  • Try to solve last year’s question papers & sample papers for CLAT to get an idea about the examination.
  • Candidates also practice for the different online mock tests. It helps the candidates to achieve good marks in the exam.
  • Make short notes which include important tricks & formulas.

 

Law Colleges in Pune

Pune is one of the popular destinations for law students in India. FoolsDen will help you to decide which institutions you should be targeting for law admissions in Pune

Have a look at the top Law Colleges in Pune:

  • Symbiosis Law School, Pune (Rank: 3)
  • ILS Law College (Rank: 4)
  • New Law College, Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University (Rank: 8)
  • P.E.S. Modern Law College (Rank: 34)
  • Sinhgad Law College (Rank: 37)

CLAT 2018 Analysis | Topic wise Distribution | Level of Difficulty

Finally the wait is over. This year’s CLAT was finally conducted with lot of technical glitches & haphazard. Many of the students are complaining regarding the mismanagement of this year’s exam.

Our review of CLAT – 2018 :

In English section, the level of difficulty was moderate. But RC & cloze passage section was slightly tough which shows that examiners went to check the comprehending knowledge of students.Rest was simple.

In General Knowledge section,majority of questions were from national & International Current Affairs questions were also from Sports, Awards, Books & Authors, Economics Development etc.

Logical Reasoning was slightly tougher than the previous year paper. Maximum number of questions were from analytical reasoning.There was one set of arrangement that was best left.

Legal Aptitude was very much conventional. Questions were from Contracts, Torts, Basic legal knowledge.

Maths section was really tough, were was no point in asking questions from simplification to the future lawyers.

Overall any attempt between 140-150 is a very good attempt. Also this year we are expecting less cutoff than the previous year as the pape was tough and due to technical glitches lot of students have lost time.

For topic-wise distribution please watch our CLAT 2018 Analysis on youtube.

Please do share your CLAT experience with us and ALL THE BEST.

LEGAL WORDS STARTING WITH ‘W’

1) Ward of court – a person who is protected by the High Court, such as a minor.

2) Warrant – is:

  • a certificate which gives the person holding it the right to buy shares at a given price;
  • a magistrate’s written instruction to arrest someone;or
  • a magistrate’s written instruction to search a

3) Warranty – a term in a contract. If the term is not complied with damages can be claimed by the injured party.

4) Way leave – a right of way through or over a piece of land often for a particular purpose, such as for a pipeline to go through a piece of land or for goods to be carried over it.

5) Will – a legal document which people use to bequeath (leave as a gift) money and property when they die.

6) Winding up – disposing of all a company’s assets and paying all its debts. Any money left is then divided among the members.

7) With out prejudice – when written on a document, the document cannot be used as evidence that a contract or agreement exists.

8) Witness – someone who:

  • watches a signature being put on a document,and then signs as well to verify the signature’s authenticity;or
  • attends court to testify about events they know about.

To witness a document is to watch it being signed and then add your own signature and name, address and occupation.

9) Words of art – words which have a fixed meaning in law so that their use in a legal document can have only one interpretation.

10) Writ – an order issued by a court telling someone to do something or not to do something. (This has been known as a ‘claim form’ since April 1999).

11) Writ of execution – a type of writ (‘claim form’ since April 1999) used when a court judgement needs enforcing.

12) Writ of summons – a type of writ (‘claim form’ since April 1999) used to start a civil case in the High Court. (This has been known as a ‘claim form’ since April 1999).

13) Wrongful dismissal – ending an employee’s contract without following the contract’s terms.

14) Wrongful trading – continuing to trade while knowing that there is little prospect of the company being able to pay its debts.

LEGAL WORDS STARTING WITH ‘V’

1) Vendee – a person who buys something.

2) Vendor – a person who sells something.

3) Verdict – the jury’s decision at the end of a case.

4) Vesting order – away the High Court transfers land without the need for a conveyance.

5) Vexatious litigant – a person who regularly brings court cases which have little chance of succeeding.

6) Vicarious liability – a situation where someone becomes responsible under the law for wrongs done by someone else. This often happens when an employee does something wrong while at work which becomes the employer’s responsibility (such as an employee working negligently and causing someone else to be hurt because of the negligence).

7) Violent disorder – three or more people in a gathering using or threatening to use unlawful violence.

8) Void – unable to be enforced by the law.

9) Voidable –  –  able to be cancelled in certain circumstances.

10) Voluntary arrangement – an agreement between a debtor and the creditors.If a person or a company can not pay their debts when they are due they can come to a voluntary arrangement with the creditors to pay the debts over a period. If the creditors agree with the proposals it avoids bankruptcy of the individual or liquidation of the company.

11) Voluntary manslaughter – Murder and voluntary manslaughter have the same meaning in law. But there are four deference that can reduce the crime in seriousness to manslaughter :

  • Provocation;
  • Diminished responsibility;
  • Infanticide;
  • Suicide.

DETAILED ANALYSIS: FAADU MOCK #06

First of all we would like to congratulate you for taking our first ALL INDIA MOCK and taking the first step towards cracking CLAT 2018. We are glad to present the complete analysis of this test to passionate aspirants like you. Let’s go !!

Total number of questions : 200

Marks per question: 1

Negative marking : 0.25

Highest score: 87

Average score: 62

Cut off for top 3 NLUs : 139

Cut off for next 5 NLUS : 125

Cut off for lower NLUs : 108

SECTIONWISE ANALYSIS:

NAME OF THE SECTION HIGHEST SCORE IN THE SECTION TEST TOPPER’S SCORE IN THE SECTION AVERAGE SCORE IN THE SECTION
Numerical ability 4.25 0.75 3
Logical reasoning 28.5 25.75 16.5
English language 15 13.75 8
General knowledge 46.75 15.5 20
Legal aptitude 33.5 31.25 21

LIST OF TOPPERS & THEIR SCORES:

NAME NUMERICAL

ABILITY

LOGICAL REASONING ENGLISH GK LEGAL APTITUDE TOTAL SCORE
Ashit 0.75 25.75 13.75 15.5 31.25 87
Aayush Raj 1.75 28.5 10.5 23.75 22.5 87
Roshani Sahu 2.75 9 8.25 46.75 18.75 85.5

We congratulate the toppers.

 

We wish others luck that they get to the topper list in our next edition of FAADU MOCKS.

Next FAADU MOCK # 07 will be conducted next Sunday (29/04/2018).

Until then, it’s ciao from

SHREYA

NLSIU, BANGALORE

LEGAL WORDS STARTING WITH ‘U’

1) Uberrimae fidei – of the utmost good faith.In certain contracts (such as insurance policies) one party must disclose (reveal) any material facts to the other party. If they are not disclosed the contract can be cancelled or become unenforceable. (This term is Latin.)

2) Ultra vires – beyond one’s powers. If an organisation does something ultra vires,what it has done is invalid.

3) Under lease – the lease of a property by a tenant of the property to someone else.

4) Undertaking – a promise which can been forced by law such as a promise made by one of the parties or by their counsel during legal proceedings.

5) Unfair contract terms – prevents a party to a contract unfairly limiting their liability. The Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977 was passed to control unfair exclusion clauses. In particular, in a case where someone had been killed or injured because of someone else’s negligence the act prevented a contract limiting the negligent person’s liability.

6) Unfair dismissal – sacking an employee unfairly.When an employee has been dismissed it is the employer’s responsibility to prove that the dismissal was fair. If an industrial tribunal finds that the dismissal was unfair it can insist on compensation or reinstatement.

7) Unit trust – a trust which manages investments.People can invest in unit trusts by buying units.The managers of the trust use the money people invest to buy investments. The fund manager values the fund’s assets from time to time and puts a new price on the fund’s units.

8) Unlawful wounding – wounding someone without the justification of self defence or without power given by the law.

9) Unliquidated damages – the amount of damages decided by a court because the parties to a contract had not agreed in advance how much the damages would be for breaking the terms of the contract.

10) Unreasonable behaviour – behaviour by a married person that justifies the other partner in the marriage living apart.

11) Unreasonable behaviour Unregistered company – a company which is not registered under the Companies Acts.

12) Unregistered land – land which is not recorded in the registers at HM Land Registry.

13) Unsecured creditor – someone who has lent money without getting any security for the loan.

14) Uterine – describes people who have the same mother but different fathers.

LEGAL WORDS STARTING WITH ‘T’

1) Tangible asset – an asset which can be physically touched.

2) Tangible property – property that physically exists.

3) Tax – money raised by the Government to pay for the services it provides. Some taxes are called indirect because they are part of the price we pay for goods and services, such as VAT. Other tax is called direct because the individual taxpayer pays it. Income tax and corporation tax are examples of direct taxes.

4) Taxable supply – a term for supplying goods and services on which value added tax can be charged. This applies even if the tax rate is 0% at present, because it can be increased if the Government chooses to.

5) Taxation – the levying of taxes.

6) Taxation of costs – the scrutiny of and, if necessary, the lowering of a solicitor’s bill to a client. The scrutiny is done by a court officer.

7) Tax avoidance – reducing tax bills by using legal means.

8) Tax evasion – breaking the law to reduce tax bills, such as by concealing income.

9) Tax point – the date when value added tax arises on goods or services supplied (or made available) to a customer. The tax point should be displayed on invoices. It is not necessarily the same as the date of the invoice.

10) Teeming and lading – a term used to describe attempts to hide the loss of cash received from one customer by using cash from other customers to replace it. This fraud can carry on by using cash from other customers in the same Way.

11) Tenant – a person or organisation granted a lease.

12) Tender – supplying a price for a job. If an organisation asks firms to send in tenders for supplying something, they are asking for firm written offers to do the work to an agreed standard and at a stated price.

13) Tenure – how a piece of land is held by the owner (for instance freehold or leasehold).

14) Term – any of the clauses which form part of a contract.

15) Terra – land. (This word is Latin.)

16) Terrorism – using violence for political purposes.

17) Testament – a will dealing with personal property.

18) Testamentum – another name for a will.

19) Testator – a person who makes a will.

20) Testify – to give evidence.

21) Testimony – the evidence a witness gives in court.

22) Theft – taking someone else’s property dishonestly,with the intention of never returning it.

23) Threatening behavior – using threats, abuse or insults against another person.

24) Timeshare – an arrangement where people can buy a share in part of a property for a period of time in each year. They can use their part of the accommodation each year for the period that is theirs.

25) Title – the right to own something.

26) Title deeds – the documents which prove who owns a property and under what terms.

27) Toll – a payment in return for being allowed to travel over a road, bridge and soon.

28) Tort – doing something which harms someone else. It may result in a claim for damages. (This word is Old French.)

29) Tort feasor – someone who commits a tort.

30) Trademark – a mark which is registered at trademark registries and which is used on products produced by the owner. It is illegal for anyone else to display the mark.

31) Transcript – the official record of a court case.

32) Transferable securities – securities, such as debentures, which can have their ownership changed.

33) Transferee – the person something is transfer red to.

34) Transferor – the person who transfers something to someone else.

35) Treason – the crime of betraying your country such as helping your country’s enemies in wartime.

36) Treasure trove – treasure found in a hiding place and whose owner can not be traced. It belongs to the Crown but the finder and the landowner may get a reward.

37) Treasury – the government department which administers (manages) the country’s finances.

38) Treasury bill – an unconditional promise by the Treasury to repay money it has borrowed for the short term (up to one year), to pay for government spending.

39) Treasury Solicitor – the person who gives legal advice to the Treasury.

40) Trespassing – going on land without the owner’s permission.

41) Trial – an examination of the evidence in a case and the law which applies.

42) Tribunal is:

  • a body set up to act like a court, but outside the normal court system;
  • a forum to hear disputes and with the authority to settle them;
  • a body given power by statute to discipline members of a profession who do not keep to the high standards of behaviour demanded of members of the profession;or
  • a body set up by the members of an association to police the members’actions.

43) Trust – a financial arrangement under which property is held by named people for someone else.

44) Trust corporation – a company which acts as a trustee and holds a trust’s assets.

45) Trust deed – a legal document which is used to:

  • create a trust;
  • change a trust; or
  • control a trust.

46) Trustee – a person who holds property and looks after it on behalf of someone else.

47) Trustee in bankruptcy – a person who administers (manages) a bankrupt person’s estate and pays any available money to the creditors.

LEGAL WORDS STARTING WITH ‘S’

1) Sale or return – an arrangement under which goods can be kept by the potential buyer for a period while their resale is attempted.Unsold goods can be returned if the conditions of the contract have been kept to and the buyer pays for the goods used.

2) Salvage – compensation paid by the owners for saving ships, aircraft and property from the sea.

3)Satisfaction is: Scheme of

  • paying a debt;
  • settling an obligation by an act;or
  • settling an obligation by substituting something satisfactory for what was

4) Arrangement – an agreement between a person with debts, who cannot pay them when they are due, and the creditors. The creditors share the money the debtor manages to pay in proportion to what they are each owed.

5) Scrip – a certificate showing the extra shares and fractions of shares the owner is entitled to.

6) Scrip dividend – a dividend paid in shares instead of cash.

7) Scrip issue – free shares offered to the members of a company in proportion to the share holdings.

8) Search – inspection of the registers maintained by organisations such as the Land Registry. When a person in tends to buy a property such as a house,a solicitor arranges the inspection. This is to find out if there is any adverse information about the property or the surrounding area.

9) Search warrant – a warrant issued by a magistrate, or High Court judge,to allow police officers to search premises.

10) Securities – stocks, shares, debentures and so on where there is a right to receive interest or dividends from the investment.

11) Security – something of value pledged to a bank by a borrower. If the borrower fails to repay the debt, the bank can sell the security and repay the debt out of the proceeds of the sale.

12) Security of tenure – protection from a landlord attempting to obtain possession of the property the tenant is renting.

13) Sedition – writing things or saying things which encourage ordinary people to rise up against the Government or which cause discontent.

14) Sentence – the penalty the court imposes on someone found guilty of an offence.

15) Separation order – a court order that a husband and wife can live separately if they wish.

16) Sequestration – a court order for the seizure of someone’s property.

17) Settle – means:

  • to create a settlement;
  • to end a case by agreement;or
  • to draw up a contract and agree its

18) Settlement – when property is bestowed, usually by a will or a deed, on a trust for the benefit of people decided by the settlor. It also means voluntarily agreeing to settle a civil case.

19) Settlor – the person who gives property to a settlement.

20) Several – separate (not joint).

21) Shadow director – a person who has not been appointed a director of a company but nevertheless gives instructions to the directors, which they comply with.

22) Share capital – the money invested directly in a company by its members. When the shares are first made available by the company, people can apply to buy them. The company states the price it wants for the shares.

23) Share certificate – a document which certifies who owns shares in a Company. It gives the type and number of shares owned by the shareholder and lists the serial numbers of the shares.

24) Share premium Account – an account in a set of books recording the extra amount over face value that shares have been issued for. If shares are issued for more than their face value, the extra amount over face value is called a share premium.

25) Sheriff – someone appointed each year by the Crown to be a county’s senior officer. Each county in the UK has a sheriff. To be eligible for the office the person must own some land in the county. The areas of the law which come within the sheriff’s jurisdiction are largely dealt with by the under – sheriff.

26) Shoplifting – stealing goods from a shop.

27) Short hold tenancy – a tenancy under which the law allows the landlord to repossess the house.

28) Sine die – indefinitely. If a case has been adjourned sine die no date has been set for it to be continued.(This term is Latin.)

29) Slander – saying something untrue about a person or doing something, such as making a gesture, which damages their reputation.

30) Small claims court – a section of the county court which deals with small claims. There is a simplified way of making a claim in the county court in a civil case where the claim is for no more than £5000 (or £1000 in personal injury cases). Neither side can claim costs.

31) Smuggling – importing or exporting goods illegally to avoid a ban on them or to avoid the duties on them.

32) Sold note – a note that shows details of investments which have been sold, including the sale price and any charges taken. Stockbrokers produce sold notes for their clients.

33) Soliciting – a prostitute attempting to get clients in a street or other public place.

34) Solicitor – a person who can deal with legal matters for the public and give advice on legal matters. All solicitors are listed on the roll of solicitors kept by the Law Society. Some solicitors can appear for their clients in some of the lower courts.

35) Solicitor General – the assistant of the Attorney General. They both advise the Government.

36) Special resolution – a resolution which must be approved by holders of at least 75% of the shares with voting rights. (Some types of share give their owners the right to vote at shareholder meetings, but there are other types which do not.)

37) Specific performance – a court order to complete a contract.The courts may order a person who has failed to fulfill an obligation under a contract to complete it.

38) Spent conviction – a conviction which, after the passage of a stated time period, does not have to be disclosed (revealed) to a court.

39) Squatter – a person who occupies land illegally.

40) Stalking – the name given to a form of harassment where a person is made to feel alarmed or distressed by another person’s actions. The prosecution has to prove that a reasonable person would have known that the behavior would create distress or fear.The harassment must have happened on at least two occasions.

41) Stamp duty – a tax on the transfer documents for certain types of transaction. Examples are buying shares, patent rights and properties.

42) Statement of claim – the claimant’s written statement setting out the claim in a civil case. (This term has not been used since April 1999.)

43) Status – how the law regards a person,such as whether the person is a minor or a bankrupt and soon.

44) Statute – an Act of Parliament.

45) Statute book – all the existing statutes in a country.

46) Statute law – the law created by Acts of Parliament.

47)Statute of limitation – a statute which sets out the time limits within which a court action must take place.

48) Statutory accounts – company accounts which have been filed with the Registrar of Companies. The accounts have to disclose (show) the information required by the Companies Acts.

49) Statutory audit – an audit required by law. Certain companies have to have their accounts audited by suitably qualified accountants.

50) Statutory books – books of account which companies must keep by law to show and explain all their transactions.

51) Statutory demand – a written demand for payment of a debt of more than £750.

52)Statutory instrument – a power delegated by Parliament. Parliament can delegate its power to make and amend law to a person or organisation. A statutory instrument is one of these powers and is used by government ministers to amend legislation.

53) Stay of execution – the suspension of the carrying out of a court order.

54) Stipendiary magistrate – a magistrate who gets a salary.

55) Stockbroker – a person who buys and sells stocks and shares for clients.

56) Sub duct – to withdraw.

57) Subject to contract – an agreement which is not binding until a contract has been signed.

58) Subjudice – describes something being dealt with by a court which cannot be discussed outside the court.(This term is Latin.)

59) Subpoena – a writ requiring the person it is addressed to to attend at a specific place (such as a court) on a specific date and at a stated time.

60) Subrogation – substituting one person for another including all rights and responsibilities.

61) Subscribers – the people who set up a limited company.

62) Subsidiarity – subsidiary activities. Member countries of the European Community agreed that activities could be done by the individual member countries unless they could not do them adequately alone. The European Community therefore should only do subsidiary activities and this is called subsidiarity.

63) Subsidiary – An enterprise controlled by another (called the parent) through the ownership of greater than 50 % of its voting stock. See also affiliate.

64) Sue – to start legal proceedings in the civil court against someone.

65) Suicide – the act of killing one self intentionally.

66) Sui generis – describes something that belongs in a particular category or is the only one of its class.(This term is Latin.)

 67) Sui juris – describes someone who can enter into a contract without any restriction. (This term is Latin.)

68) Suit – proceedings brought by one person against an other in a civil court.

69) Summary judgement – obtaining judgement without a trial.In an action in the High Court to recover damages or a debt, if the claimant (‘plaintiff’ before April 1999) swears an affidavit that it is believed that there is no defence to the claim, the claimant (‘plaintiff’ before April 1999) can obtain summary judgement.

70) Summary offence – an offence that can only be tried by magistrates. Most minor offences are summary offences.

71) Summary proceedings – a trial by magistrates, where the defendant has the right to choose which court should hear the case, but has agreed to be tried in the magistrates’ court.

72) Summary trial – a trial by magistrates.

73) Summing up – the judge’s summary of a case. At the end of a trial by jury the judge explains points of law in the case to the jury, explains the jury’s role and summaries the evidence.

74) Summons – an order by a court that a person attend at a particular court at a stated time on a particular date.

75) Superior courts – the higher courts in English law,which include the High Court, the Court of Appeal,the Crown Court and the House of Lords.Their decisions act as precedents for the lower courts to follow.

76) Supervision order – a court order that a child should be supervised by a probation officer or a local authority.

77) Supra – above (see above or before in the document). (This word is Latin.)

78) Supreme Court –  –the highest court in the UK, the Supreme Court is the final court of appeal for both civil cases in the UK, and for criminal cases in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.

79) Surcharge – a penalty  charged if tax is paid late. It is also an extra charge banks make if customers do not keep to the agreements they made with the bank.

80) Surety – someone who takes responsibility for someone else’s debts or promises, and guarantees that they will be paid or undertaken (done). It is also the name for the money put up as security that someone will appear in court. If they do not appear in court the money will be forfeited.

81) Suspended sentence – a sentence that is postponed until the offender is convicted of another offence.

82) SWIFT payment – a payment from one bank account to another using the SWIFT system. SWIFT stands for Society for Worldwide Inter bank Financial Telecommunications and it is an international system for paying by credit transfer.