First of all we would like to congratulate you for taking our first ALL INDIA MOCK and taking the first step towards cracking CLAT 2018. We are glad to present the complete analysis of this test to passionate aspirants like you. Let’s go !!

Total number of questions : 200

Marks per question: 1

Negative marking : 0.25

Highest score:

Average score:

Cut off for top 3 NLUs : 141

Cut off for next 5 NLUS : 124

Cut off for lower NLUs : 109


Numerical ability 16.75 11.25 5 11
Logical reasoning 26.25 24 12 26
English language 24.5 24.5 7 24
General knowledge 47.75 24.5 17 38
Legal aptitude 30.75 29.75 18 33




GOVIND 11.25 24 24.5 24.25 29.75 113.75
AAYUSH RAJ 4 24.25 19 33.75 29.5 110.5
ROSHANI SAHU 1.75 22 12 40.75 18.25 94.75

We congratulate the toppers as they win a free FULL CLAT TEST SERIES from

We wish others luck that they get to the topper list in our next edition of FAADU MOCKS.

Next FAADU MOCK # 6 will be conducted next Sunday (22.04.18).

Until then, it’s ciao from




1) Panel – the list of people who have been summoned for jury service.

2) Pardon – releasing someone from a court’s punishment. The Crown has the right to alter, cancel or reduce the penalties imposed by the courts.

3) Pari passu – equally. (This term is Latin.)

4) Parole – release from prison early. If someone is given parole they may be returned to prison if they offend again.

5) Party – the claimant (‘plaintiff’ before April 1999) or defendant in a lawsuit. It is also someone who has taken out a contract or agreement.

6) Passing off – pretending that the goods and services offered are those supplied by another business.

7) Patent – an official right for a specified period of time to be the only person (or organisation) to make or sell something.

8) Patricide – the killing of a father by his own son or daughter.

9) Pawn – to pledge goods as security for a loan.

10) Payee – the person money is being paid to.

11) Payment into court – money paid to the court by the defendant for payment to the claimant (‘plaintiff’ before April 1999).

12) Penalty – is:

  • a sum of money which has to be paid if the terms of a contract are broken; or
  • a punishment given to someone who commits a

13) Penalty points – points given by a court as punishment for driving offences. If enough penalty points have been collected the offenders may have their driving licences taken off them.

14) Per – through or by. (This word is Latin.)

15) Performance – doing what is required under a contract.

16) Perjury – lying to a court after you have been sworn in.

17) Perpetuity – forever. The law prevents property being tied up in perpetuity because it could stop owners disposing of it.

18) Per pro – on behalf of. (This term is Latin.)

19) Per quod – in accordance with or whereby. (This term is Latin.)

20) Per se – in itself or by itself. (This term is Latin.)

21) Personal guarantee – a pledge, by a person to a bank, to repay a debt owed to the bank if the bank’s customer fails to pay it.

22) Personal injury – an injury caused to a person.

23) Personal property – all property except land.

24) Personal representative – a person who is appointed to deal with a dead person’s estate. If there is a will, the executors appointed will be the personal representatives. If there is no will, the courts will appoint someone called the administrator.

25) Personalty – another word for personal property.

26) Personation – pretending to be someone you are not.

27) Per stirpes – describes property divided equally between the offspring. If a parent who is a beneficiary under a will dies and the legacy goes to the children in equal shares, the legacy has been divided per stirpes. (This term is Latin.)

28) Perverting the course of justice – doing something to interfere with the justice system (such as misleading the court or intimidating

29) Plaintiff – the person who goes to court to make a claim against someone else. (Since April 1999, this term has been replaced with ‘Claimant’.)

30) Plea – the defendant’s answer to the accusations.

31) Plea bargain – when the defendant pleads guilty instead of not guilty in return for a concession by the prosecution (such as dropping another charge).

32) Plead – to declare to the court whether you are guilty or not guilty.

33) Pleadings – statements of the facts prepared by both sides in a civil case. Each side gives the other its pleadings so that they are both aware of what arguments will be used during the trial. (This term was replaced with statement of case’ in April 1999).

34) Pledge – letting someone take possession of goods but the ownership does not change. It is often done to give security for money owed or to make sure that something is done as promised.

35) Plenipotentiary – someone who has been given complete authority to act.

36) Poaching – taking game from someone else’s land without permission.

37) Polygamy – being married to more than one person at once.

38) Possess – to have property under your control.

39) Possession – having something under your control even though you may not own it.

40) Possessory title – gaining title through possession. If you have possession of something for a long time you may gain title to it even though you do not have documents to prove that it is yours.

41) Post – mortem – the examination of a dead body to establish the cause of death.

42) Power of appointment – a person giving a second person the power to dispose of the first person’s property.

43) Power of attorney – a document which gives power to the person appointed by it to act for the person who signed the document.

44) Practising certificate – certificates showing a person is entitled to practise law. Every year the Law Society issues these certificates to the solicitors who can practise law.

45) Preamble – an explanation of a proposed law. At the beginning of each Act of Parliament there is an explanation of what the Act is intended to achieve.

46) Precedent – Lower courts have to follow the decisions of the higher courts. This is called precedent, binding precedent or judicial precedent.

47) Precept – an order given by an official body or person. It is used:

  • by a county council to tell a body to levy (charge) rates for the benefit of the county Council;
  • by a sheriff to call an election; or
  • to order payment of a sum of money, such as by a writ or a

48) Pre – emption – the right to buy property before others are given the chance to

49) Preference – when insolvent, paying one creditor while leaving other creditors unpaid.

50) Preference shares – a share entitled to a fixed dividend. Holders of preference shares are treated more favourably than ordinary shareholders. The preference dividend is at a fixed rate and must be paid in full before a dividend can be paid on the ordinary shares. When the company is wound up the preference shares must be fully paid out before the ordinary shareholders can be paid.

51) Preferential creditor – a creditor who has to be paid in full before unsecured creditors can be paid anything.

52) Prima facie – on the face of it. (This term is Latin.)

53) Principal – is:

  • someone who authorises another person to act for them;
  • the actual person who committed a crime; or
  • an amount of money lent or invested, not Including the

54) Privilege – special rights which some people have because of the job they do or their special status. For example, diplomats of foreign countries are immune from arrest in the UK.

55) Privity of contract – only the parties to a contract can sue each other over breaches of contract.

56) Privy Council –  – a body of people appointed by the Crown. Its members include members of the royal family, present and former cabinet ministers and people who hold or have held high office. Its main duties are advising the Queen.

57) Privy Purse – money given to the Crown for royal household expenses.

58) Probate – authority to deal with a dead person’s estate. When someone has died and left a will, the executors of the estate apply to the court for this authority.

59) Probate Registry – a registry which deals with the forms which are needed when someone applies for probate.

60) Probation – If a court convicts someone of an offence, the court may order that the offender is supervised by a probation officer for a period of at least six months but for no more than three years. This is known as probation and it is an alternative to sending the person to prison.

61) Process – In law a process is:

  • a summons or writ which is used to order someone to appear in court;
  • the whole of a case from beginning to end; or
  • the total number of summonses or writs issued during a

62) Procurator – a person who has been given authority to manage another person’s affairs, such as under a power of attorney.

63) Procurator fiscal – under Scottish law, a person who acts as public prosecutor and coroner.

64) Product liability – the liability of manufacturers and sellers to compensate people for unsafe goods which have caused injury to people or property.

65) Promisee – a person who has been promised something.

66) Promisor – a person who has promised something.

67) Promissory note – a written promise to pay an amount of money to someone at a given time.

68) Property – the name for anything which can be owned.

69) Pro rata – in proportion. For example, if 10 items cost £100 you would expect three items to cost £30 if they were priced pro rata. (This term is Latin.)

70) Prosecution – the name for the team of people (lawyers and so on) bringing proceedings against someone else. Also when legal proceedings are taken against someone it is called a prosecution.

71) Prosecutor – the person who brings legal proceedings, on behalf of the Crown, against the accused.

72) Prospectus – a formal document giving details of a company’s past performance and of its plans for the future. If a public company wants people to invest in it, it prepares a prospectus.

73) Prostitution – selling sexual services for money.

74) Protected tenancy – a tenancy agreement for a house. It gives the tenant the right to a fair rent and protection from eviction as long as the terms and conditions of the tenancy agreement are kept to.

75) Proviso – a clause in a legal document which qualifies another section of the agreement.

76) Provocation – causing someone to lose their self – control by doing or saying something (such as threatening to harm a baby) which would cause a reasonable person to temporarily lose their self – control.

78) Proxy – a person appointed by a shareholder to go to a meeting of shareholders. The proxy can vote at the meeting for the shareholder.

79) Proxy form – a form for shareholders by which, if it is delivered to a company at least 48 hours before the shareholders’ meeting, the person who is the proxy will be able to vote at that meeting.

80) Public mischief – something that someone does which damages the general community.

81) Public nuisance – a crime by which the general public is put in danger or suffers damage to its health, property and so on.

82) Putative father – the man found by a court to be the father of an illegitimate child.


1) India-Wiesbaden Conference 2018 Held In New Delhi

  • The Ministry of External Affairs in cooperation with the Government of Germany and the United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs (UNODA) hosted the India-Wiesbaden Conference 2018 in New-Delhi.
  • Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) was the industry partner for the event. The title of the Conference is ‘Securing Global Supply Chains through Government-Industry Partnerships towards Effective Implementation of UNSC Resolution 1540’.

2) India And UK Sign 10 Agreements In Several Sectors

  • india and the UK have signed 10 agreements in several sectors including cyber-relationship, rejuvenation of Ganga and skill development.  The Important agreements signed between the 2 countries are as follows: 
    1. The two countries have agreed to an overarching cyber-relationship framework that among others enables the development of a common and shared understanding of the international cyber activity.
    2. An MoU on the rejuvenation of River Ganga, National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG) and the UK-based Natural Environmental Research Council (NERC).
    3. An MoU on Skill Development, Vocational education and Training and seek to promote greater collaboration in domains such as strengthening skill delivery in high demand sectors where UK has technical and skilling expertise.
    4. A Statement of Intent between NITI Aayog and UK’s Department of Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS) has also been signed.
    5. Inked the deal on cooperation in the field of Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries Sectors seeking to strengthen collaboration in livestock health and husbandry, breeding, dairying and fisheries.
    6. An MoU on Exchange of Information for the Purposes of Combating International Criminality and Tackling Serious Organised Crime has been signed.

3) Government Launches ‘Study In India’ To Attract Foreign Students

  • The Indian Government has launched the ‘Study in India’ initiative to attract international students to study in India. The website of Study in India can be accessed at External Affairs Minister Sushma Swaraj and Minister of State for Human Resources Development Satya Pal Singh jointly launched the initiative in New Delhi.
  • The portal will enable students from 30 countries across South Asia, Africa and West Asia to select and apply for different courses from 150 select Indian institutions which are high on NAAC and  NIRF ranking. The Study in India is aimed at making India a preferred destination for the foreign students to pursue their education.

4) Venkaiah Naidu Launches Assam Govt’s Cashless Health Scheme

  • Vice President M Venkaiah Naidu has launched a health scheme of the Assam government named Atal Amrit Abhiyan that offers free medical care of up to 2 lakh rupees for every individual from Below Poverty Line (BPL) and Above Poverty Line (APL) families.
  • The state government has earmarked 400 crore rupees for the scheme in the financial year 2018-19. The cashless scheme Atal Amrit Abhiyan will cover 92 percent of the state’s population with annual income below 5 lakh rupees.

5) Bisket Jatra Being Celebrated In Nepal

  • The Jatra begins in Nepal. It is believed that the festival started during Malla dynasty. In Nepal, the famous Bisket Jatra is being celebrated in Bhaktapur and other parts of Kathmandu valley.
  • The nine day annual festival marks beginning of Nepali new year. The Jatra begins four days before the start of new year.

6) POSHAN Abhiyaan: 1st meeting of National Council on India’s Nutrition Challenges held in New Delhi

  • On 18th April 2018, the first meeting of National Council on India’s Nutrition Challenges under POSHAN Abhiyaan was held at Vigyan Bhawan, in New Delhi.
  • Rajiv Kumar, Vice Chairman NITI Aayog, Dr V K Paul, Member (Health & Nutrition) NITI Aayog, Amitabh Kant, CEO, NITI Aayog, and representatives of several ministries of the Central and State Governments participated in the meeting.

7) India wins six elections to UN Economic and Social Council bodies

  • On April 16, 2018, India won six elections to UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) bodies.
  • By winning these elections, India won places on the executive boards of four UN bodies, three commissions and a committee. In election for the Non-Governmental Organisations (NGO) Committee, within the Asia-Pacific group, India got the highest number of votes (46).
  • The NGO committee scrutinises the NGOs applying for consultative status with ECOSOC. It is an important body as it has the power to recommend or block them.

8) Commerce Ministry Launches Digital Platform For MSME Exporters

  • Commerce and Industry Minister launched the Federation of Indian Export Organisations (FIEO) GlobalLinker platform for MSME exporters in New Delhi. This move is aimed at assisting the Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) engaged in exports.
  • This initiative will help in expanding India’s multi-focused export strategy and also aid in connecting art and artisans to the market. FIEO GlobalLinker is setup with a view to make the business growth of SMEs simpler, more profitable and enjoyable.

9) Signature Of MoU Between GIFAS (France) And SIDM (India)

  • The Society of Indian Defence Manufacturers (SIDM) and the Groupement des Industries Françaises Aeronautiques et Spatiales (GIFAS) signed an MoU on the sidelines of a major industrial mission in India in the field of aerospace and defence organised by GIFAS with the support of SIDM.
  • This agreement aims to promote a sustainable framework for present and future partnerships and cooperative actions between the French aerospace industry and the Indian defence industry by reaffirming the necessity to expand trade, through stronger economic and industrial cooperation, between France and India, and towards export customers.

10) Former US 1st Lady Barbara Bush Passes Away

  • Former US first lady Barbara Bush passed away at the age of 92. Office of George H.W. Bush informed about her demise in a statement. As the first lady, from 1989 to 1993, she embraced the cause of universal literacy and founded a foundation for family literacy.
  • She was the mother of another President, George W. Bush and one-time presidential aspirant and former Florida governor Jeb Bush.


1) Oath – swearing the truth of a statement.

2) Objects clause – a clause which forms part of a company’s memorandum of association It sets out the purposes the company was formed for.

3) Obligation – a legal duty to do something.

4) Obligee – someone who, under a contract, receives money or has something done.

5) Obligor – someone who is bound by a contract to pay money or do something.

6) Obstruction – a motoring offence involving:

  • leaving a vehicle or other obstruction in a road; or
  • driving in a way which inconveniences other road

7) Occupation – taking control of a piece of land which belongs to someone else.

8) Occupational pension Scheme – a pension scheme organised by an employer for its employees.

9) Occupier – the person who is in control of a piece of land, such as a tenant.

10) Offensive weapon – an object that is intended to physically injure someone.

11) Offer – a promise to do something, or not to do something. If the promise is accepted it becomes legally

12) Offeree – the person who receives the legally binding offer.

13) Offeror – the person who makes the legally binding offer.

14) Official receiver – the person appointed to act as a receiver in bankruptcies and company winding – up cases. The Department of Trade and Industry appoints official receivers.

15) Official secret – information which the Government classifies as confidential. It is a criminal offence to disclose an official secret without permission.

16) Official Solicitor – an officer of the Supreme Court whose duties include acting for people who cannot act for themselves, such as children or people with mental health problems.

17) Omission – a failure to do something.

18) Oppression – the offence of public officials using their official positions to harm or injure people.

19) Option – a type of contract under which money is paid for a right to buy or sell goods at a fixed price by a particular date in the future.

20) Order – an instruction by or command of a court.

21) Order in Council – an order given by the monarch (King or Queen) after taking advice from the members of the Privy Council.

22) Originating summons – a summons that sets out the questions the court is being asked to settle. When the facts in a case are not disputed, but the interpretation of the law or of the documents needs to be resolved, an originating summons is prepared.

23) Outlaw – formerly, a person who was not protected by the law.

24) Overt act – an act done openly and from which the criminal intention of the act is clear.



1) UK Joins International Solar Alliance To Mark Narendra Modi Visit

  • The United Kingdom joined the India-led International Solar Alliance (ISA) ahead of Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s four-day visit to Britain. At an event held at the London Stock Exchange as part of the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting 2018 (CHOGM), Britain formally announced its membership of the alliance.
  • This alliance aims to raise $1 trillion of private and public finance to provide affordable and sustainable energy for all by 2030.

2) India To Grow At 7.4% In 2018: IMF

  • The International Monetary Fund (IMF) has stated that India is expected to grow at 7.4% in 2018 and 7.8% in 2019 and would re-emerge as one of the fastest growing major economies in the period.
  • The IMF explained this is due to the strong private consumption as well as fading transitory effects of the currency exchange initiative and implementation of the national goods and services tax. According to the IMF, India will leave its nearest rival China which will grow at 6.6 in 2018 and 6.4% in 2019.

3) Lt Gen PP Malhotra Takes Over As Director-General Of NCC

  • Lieutenant General PP Malhotra assumed charge as Director General of National Cadet Corps (NCC), the largest uniformed youth organization in the world.
  • Prior to assuming his present appointment, he was the Chief Engineer of the Army’s premier Northern Command

4) List Of MOUs And Agreements Signed On Visit Of PM Modi To Stockholm

  • MOUs/Agreements between India and Sweden
    • Joint Declaration on India-Sweden Innovation Partnership for a Sustainable Future between Ministry of Science and Technology of India and the Ministry of Enterprise and Innovation.
  • MOUs/Agreements between India and Denmark
    • MOU on Cooperation in the field of Sustainable and Smart Urban Development between the Ministry for Housing and Urban Affairs of India and the Ministry of Industry, Business and Financial Affairs of Denmark.
    • MOU on Cooperation in the fields of Animal Husbandry and Dairying between Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying & Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare of India and the Danish Veterinary and Food Administration, Ministry of Environment and Food of Denmark.
    • MOU on Food Safety Cooperation between the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India and the Danish Veterinary and Food Administration.
    • MOU on Cooperation in Agricultural Research and Education between the Indian Council of Agricultural Research and the University of Copenhagen, Faculty of Science, Denmark.
  • MOUs/Agreements between India and Iceland
    • MOU on the Establishment of the ICCR Chair for Hindi Language between Indian Council for Cultural Relations and the University of Iceland.

5) Goa to be Developed as Cargo Hub- Suresh Prabhu

  • Union Minister for Civil Aviation Suresh Prabhu said that, Central government along with state government and private partners is working to promote Goa as a tourism destination and a cargo hub.
  • Suresh Prabhu said this when he addressed media persons at Dabolim Airport, Goa, after inspection of the renovation work.
  • He said that, Mopa airport will start operations by September 2020. Dabolim Airport will continue to operate along with Mopa Airport. At Dabolim airport, renovation work worth Rs 300 crore is being done. New multi-layer parking complex will start operation by July 2018.

6) World Bank to fund community-led landscapes management in Meghalaya

  • On 16th April 2018, a loan agreement worth USD 48 million for the “Meghalaya Community – Led Landscapes Management Project (MCLLMP)” was signed by India and the World Bank, in New Delhi.
  • The objective of this project is to enhance community-led landscapes management in selected landscapes in Meghalaya.
    ii. The project has three components:

    • strengthening knowledge and capacity for natural resource management
    • community-led landscape planning and implementation
    • project management and governance

7) Aditi Rao Hydari to receive Dadasaheb Phalke Award for ‘Bhoomi’

  • Aditi Rao Hydari will be awarded the Dada Saheb Phalke excellence award 2018 for the Best Leading Lady (Critics Award) for her performance in the Bollywood movie ‘Bhoomi’.
  • The film ‘Bhoomi’ also featured actor Sanjay Dutt. The story revolved around a protective father who saved his daughter from all evils surrounding her.
  • The award ceremony will be held on 21st April 2018, at St. Andrews Auditorium in Mumbai. The event will see participation from producers, directors, distributors, exhibitors etc.

8) Veteran Journalist S Nihal Singh Passes Away

  • Veteran journalist S Nihal Singh passed at the age of 88 following an illness. He was suffering from kidney-related ailments.  Nihal Singh had worked with several leading newspapers including The Indian Express, The Statesman and Khaleej Times.

9) World Heritage Day- 18 April

  • Every year, 18th April is celebrated Worldwide as World Heritage Day to create awareness about Heritage among communities. This year the theme is ‘Heritage for Generations’.
  • The theme emphasizes on inter-generational transfer of knowledge. In India, World heritage day will be celebrated at National Rail Museum, New Delhi. There are total 36 world heritage sites in India, as designated by UNESCO.


1) Naked trust  –  a trust which holds property for a person until they ask the trustee to return it.

2) Naturalisation  –  giving a citizen of one country citizenship of another.

3) Negligence  –  lack of proper care to do a duty properly.

Negligent – lacking proper care to do a duty properly.

5) Negotiable instrument – a document which:

  • is signed;
  • is an instruction to pay an amount of money;
  • can have its ownership changed by changing
  • the name it is paid to; and
  • can have its ownership changed simply by being delivered to its next owner.

6) Next of kin – a person’s closest blood relatives.

7) Nondisclosure – the failure by one side to a contract to disclose (reveal) a fact to the other side that would influence their decision to go ahead with the contract.

8) Non – exclusive licence – an agreement giving someone the right to use something but which does not prevent other people being given similar agreements.

9) Notary – a person (usually a solicitor) who is authorised to certify documents, take affidavits and swear oaths.

10) Not guilty – a court’s verdict that the person charged with a crime did not commit it. When criminal court cases start the defendants are asked for their pleas. If they want to deny they committed the offence they plead not guilty. If a court’s verdict is that the prosecution has not proved the defendant committed a crime, the defendant has been found not guilty.

11) Notice – a warning of something which is about to happen.

12) Notice to quit – a notice to end a tenancy on a stated date. It is usually sent by the landlord to the tenant although the tenant can also send one to the landlord.

13) Not negotiable – cannot be transferred. If a bill of exchange is marked not negotiable it cannot be transferred to someone else.

14) Novation – replacing an existing agreement with a new one.

15) Nuisance – doing something that harms other people’s rights.



1) World Bank Projects India’s Growth Rate At 7.3% For 2018-19

  • The World Bank has projected a growth rate of 7.3% for India this year and 7.5% for 2019 and 2020. The bank also noted that Indian economy has recovered from the effects of demonetisation and the Goods and Services Tax.
  • The World Bank in its twice-a-year South Asia Economic Focus report in Washington stated that growth is expected to accelerate from 6.7% in 2017 to 7.3% in 2018 and to subsequently stabilise supported by a sustained recovery in private investment and private consumption.

2) CII Pegs India’s GDP Growth At 7.3-7.7% For 2018-19

  • The Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) has announced that it expects India’s gross domestic product (GDP) to grow at 7.3-7.7% during the 2018-19 financial year.
  • This is based on strengthening demand in the rural economy, including agriculture and non-farm activities, as well as better global growth climate.

3) India to set up natural gas trading hub by October

  • In a bid to further boost the consumption of natural gas in the country, Indian Government is planning to set up a Gas Trading Hub/Exchange (GTHE) by October 2018.
  • The GTHE will enable trading in natural gas and supply through a market-based mechanism instead of multiple formula driven prices. Currently, price of domestically produced natural gas is fixed by the government itself.
  • Setting up of natural gas trading hub is in line with Indian Government’s vision of ushering into a gas-based economy by increasing the share of natural gas in the primary energy mix of the country from current level of about 6 per cent to 15 per cent by 2030.

4) Biannual Army Commanders’ Conference to commence in New Delhi

  • On 16th April 2018, the biannual Indian army commanders’ conference began in New Delhi. The Biannual Army Commanders’ Conference is held for 6 days. Discussions will be made on management of the extant security dynamics, mitigation of future security threats and enhancement of combat edge over potential adversaries.
  • The opening address was delivered by Minister of State for Defence Subhash Bhamre. The conference is chaired by General Bipin Rawat, Chief of the Army Staff. Senior commanders will also discuss issues related to Army formations and Army as a whole.

5) India to work with China on OPEC’s Asian Premium issue

  • Union Petroleum Minister Dharmendra Pradhan has said that India, China and other Asian countries will work together to voice against the “Asian Premium” being charged by the Organisation of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC).
  • OPEC sells oil to Asian countries, including India, at a higher price as compared to America and European countries. The price differential is referred to as ‘Asian Premium’. Mr. Pradhan has stated that his Ministry has nominated Indian Oil Corporation Chairman Sanjiv Singh to coordinate with the head of China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) and frame a suitable strategy for getting better price for oil exports from OPEC countries.

6) Bandhan Bank among top 50 most valuable entities

  • Bandhan Bank has found a place in the list of the top-50 most valuable companies in terms of market capitalization (m-cap) in India. Bandhan Bank reached 50th position in overall market capitalization ranking with a market capitalization of Rs 640 billion on 12th April 2018, as per Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) data.
  • Bandhan Bank has surpassed Dabur India, Britannia Industries, New India Assurance Company, Tech Mahindra and Bharti Infrastructure in the last 10 trading sessions.

7) WPI inflation at 2.47 % in March

  • On 16th April 2018, data from Ministry of Commerce & Industry stated that, India’s annual Wholesale Price Inflation (WPI) was at 2.47 % in March 2018, a nine-month low, due to a fall in price of vegetables and other food and beverages.
  • he notification said that, the official Wholesale Price Index (WPI) for ‘All Commodities’ for March 2018 increased by 0.2 % to 116.0 (provisional) from 115.8 (provisional) for the previous month. The annual rate of inflation, based on monthly WPI, was at 2.47 percent (provisional) for March 2018 (over March, 2017) as compared to 2.48 %(provisional) for the previous month and 5.11 percent during the corresponding month of the previous year.

8) Government Raises NABARD’s Authorised Capital To Rs 300 Billion

  • As part of the drive to double the income of farmers by 2022, the government has raised the authorised capital of NABARD by six times from 50 billion to Rs 300 billion to help it increase its lending to the rural economy.
  • A bill in this regard was approved by Parliament earlier this year. The increase in authorised capital will enable Nabard to respond to commitments it has undertaken, particularly in respect of the Long Term Irrigation Fund and on-lending to cooperative banks.

9) On 15th April Himachal marks 71st foundation day, awards best performers

  • On April 15, 2018, Himachal Pradesh Chief Minister Jai Ram Thakur hoisted the Indian national flag at the Ridge Maidan in Shimla to mark state’s 71st foundation day.The state of Himachal was founded on April 15, 1948.
  • On the occasion of State’s 71st foundation days, personnel of Himachal Pradesh state police, home guards, Services Selection Board (SSB) and National Cadet Corps (NCC) cadets took out a parade. Various groups also performed traditional folk dances.
  • Quick Facts about Himachal Pradesh:
    ♦ Capital – Shimla, Dharamshala (second capital, in winter)
    ♦ Current Governor – Acharya Dev Vrat
    ♦ Current Chief Minister – Jai Ram Thakur
    ♦ Important National Park – Pin Valley National Park, Khirganga National Park



1) Magistrate – a Justice of the Peace who presides over (is in charge of) minor cases heard in the magistrates’ court.

2) Magistrates’ court – the lowest court. The things it deals with include minor criminal cases, most criminal cases involving 10- to 17-year-olds, issuing alcoholic drink licences and hearing child welfare cases.

3) Maintenance – money paid (and things paid for) to support a partner (husband or wife) and children when a marriage has failed.

4) Majority – the age when a person gains full legal rights and responsibilities. In the UK it is when a person becomes 18 years old.

5) Male issue – male descendants (sons only) of men.

6) Malfeasance an unlawful act.

7) Malice  intending to do something which is against the law.

8) Malice aforethought – planning to kill someone or intending to do something which is likely to kill.

9) Malicious falsehood  – a written or spoken lie told to harm somebody and which does do harm.

10) Malicious prosecution – a prosecution which is brought unreasonably.

11) Mandate – an authority to act given by one party to another. An example is when a bank’s customer writes instructions on the mandate for the bank to follow when operating the customer’s account.

12) Manslaughter – killing someone illegally but by accident. (See also Involuntary manslaughter and Voluntary manslaughter

13) Market overt – a lawful market in which, as long as someone buying goods is not aware that they do not belong to the seller, the buyer will get a good title to the goods.

14) Martial law  – government of a country by the military.

15) Master of the Rolls – the person in charge of:

  • the Civil Division of the Appeal Court; and
  • admitting solicitors to the roll of solicitors in practice.

16) Material facts  – facts which are a key part of a defence or a claim.

17) Matricide –  the killing of a mother by her son or daughter.

18) Matrimonial causes – the court proceedings:

  • to divorce people;
  • to separate a married couple; or
  • to dissolve a

19) Matrimonial home – the house that a husband and wife live in as a married couple.

20) Mediation  –  help from an independent person (a mediator) to solve differences between a husband and wife whose marriage has broken down. The mediator helps them to agree what should be done about their children, money and so on.

21) Memorandum and articles of association  – The memorandum gives details of a company’s name, objects (purposes) and share capital. It also sets out the limits of the shareholders’ liability if thecompany has to be wound up. The articles set out the members’ rights and the directors’ powers.

22) Mens rea – the intent to commit a crime and also the knowledge that an act is wrong. (This term is Latin.)

23) Mercantile law  – the branch of the law dealing with commerce.

24) Merchantable quality- the assumption in the law that goods sold by a business will be fit for their purpose.

25) Mesne profits- income lost by a landlord because the property is occupied without the landlord’s permission. An example would be a tenant failing to leave the property when the tenancy finished. It is also the profits lost by a landowner when wrongly deprived of the use of his or her land.

26) Messuage – a house together with its land and outbuildings.

27) Minor –  someone who has not yet reached the age when they get full legal rights and responsibilities. In the UK this is a person under 18 years old.

28) Minority  – being under the age of full legal rights and responsibilities.

29) Minutes – a record of the meetings held by members and directors of companies.

30) Misadventure – an unexpected accident which happens while lawfully doing something.

31) Miscarriage of justice – the court system failing to give justice to someone.

32) Misconduct – deliberately doing something which is against the law or which is wrong.

33) Misdirection – a judge instructing a jury wrongly.

34) Misfeasance – when:

  • something is done badly even though it is still legal; or
  • a company officer does something which is a breach of trust or a breach of

35) Misrepresentation – a lie told to persuade someone to enter into a contract.

36) Mistrial –  a trial that has been made invalid.

37) Mitigation – putting facts to a judge, after someone has been found guilty, to justify a lower sentence.

38) Molest/Molestation – behaviour by a person which annoys or greatly troubles their children or spouse. The behaviour can include violence, verbal threats and written threats.

39) Money laundering – making money from crime and then passing it through a business to make it appear legitimate.

40) Moratorium – an agreement not to take action to recover a debt for an agreed period of time.

41) Mortgage – using property as security for a debt. It is also the name for the contract which is signed by the borrower and lender when money is lent using property as security for a loan.

42) Mortgagee – the lender of the money which is secured by a mortgage.

43) Mortgagor – the person who borrows the money to buy a property. The lending is secured with a mortgage of the property.

44) Motive – a reason for a person doing something.

45) Muniments – documents which are evidence of a right to something.


1) PM Modi Arrives In Chhattisgarh, To Launch Various Schemes

  • On April 14, 2018, Prime Minister Narendra Modi arrived in Chhattisgarh for two-day state visit. During the course of this visit, he will launch various welfare schemes.
  • On April 14, 2018, on the occasion of Ambedkar Jayanti, Prime Minister Modi launched first of 1.5 lakh health and wellness centres, planned under the recently launched Ayushman Bharat Scheme, at Jangla village in Bijapur district of Chhattisgarh.
  • Ayushman Bharat Scheme was approved by the Union Cabinet on March 21, 2018 with budgetary support of Rs 10500 crore.
  • Under this scheme, Government has set a target to set up 1.5 lakh wellness centres by 2022 to deliver comprehensive primary healthcare. Other component of this scheme is to provide insurance cover to most deprived Indian population.
  • During this visit, PM Modi inaugurated Van Dhan Yojana aimed at empowering tribal communities.
  • He also flagged off a train between Dalli Rajhara and Bhanupratappur and thereby dedicating the Bhanupratappur-Gudum railway line to the nation.
  • Besides, he inaugurated a dialysis centre at the Bijapur hospital.

2) PM Modi Leaves On 5-Day Visit To Sweden & UK

  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi left on a five-day visit to Sweden and the UK. The visit to the two nations aims at enhancing bilateral cooperation in key areas like trade, investments and Science & technology.
  • On the first leg of his visit, the Prime Minister will attend the first-ever India-Nordic Summit at Stockholm, which will be co-hosted by India and Sweden. In London, Mr Modi will take part in the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting being hosted by the UK.

3) Smriti Irani Inaugurates 7th Edition Of Home Expo India 2018

  • The seventh edition of Home Expo India 2018, organised by Export Promotion Council for Handicrafts (EPCH), was inaugurated at India Expo Centre & Mart in Greater Noida.
  • Union Minister of Textiles Smriti Irani inaugurated the fair, while Ajay Tamta, Minister of State for Textiles, was the guest of honour.  Home Expo India 2018 is expected to generate business deals for direct import.

4) Commonwealth Heads Of Government Meeting Begins In London

  • The Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM 2018) has begun in London, the UK. Prime Minister Narendra Modi will take part in the event on 19th and 20th of April.
  • The theme of the summit is ‘Towards a Common Future’. The biennial event has brought together delegates from 53 Commonwealth nations. The summit will focus on addressing common challenges across the Commonwealth for a more prosperous, secure and sustainable future.

5) CWG 2018 Concludes: Important Indian Highlights

  • India finished third in the medals tally at the Commonwealth Games 2018 with 66 medals (26 Gold, 20 Silver and 20 Bronze). Only Australia with 198 medals and England with 136 were ahead. India’s 26 Golds was also third, behind Australia (80) and England (45). India’s combined 66 medals is its third-best showing in the history of the Games.
  • India’s best remains 101 in New Delhi (2010), followed by 69 in Manchester (2002). India bettered its showing in Glasgow 2014, where we finished fifth overall, by just two medals. In Glasgow, India claimed 15 Gold, 30 Silver and 19 Bronze. India’s best Gold tally of 38 came at home in 2010. India’s maximum medals came from shooting (16), followed by wrestling (12) and weightlifting (9).
  • Point Table
    3 India 26 20 20 66
    1 Australia 80 59 59 198
    2 England 45 45 46 136

6) Dharmendra to receive Raj Kapoor Lifetime Achievement award

  • Veteran actor Dharmendra will be conferred Raj Kapoor Lifetime Achievement by Maharashtra State Government.
  • Along with Dharmendra, Director Rajkumar Hirani will get the Raj Kapoor Special Contributions Award, veteran Marathi actor Vijay Chavhan will get Chitrapati V Shantaram Jivangaurav Puraskar (Lifetime Achievement Award) and actress-director Mrinal Kulkarni will get Chitrapati V Shantaram Vishesh Yogdaan Puraskar (Special Contributions Award). Announcement in this regard was made by Maharashtra Education and Cultural Affairs Minister Vinod Tawde on April 15, 2018.

7) L&T, BEL Ink MoU For Defence Products

  • In line with the efforts to indigenize the defence sector under the ‘Make in India’ initiative, Larsen & Toubro (L&T) and Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) signed an MoU to cater to the needs of evolving domestic and export markets for defence products and systems.
  • The MoU seeks to leverage the capabilities of both the firms for meeting the growing requirements of the Indian Armed Forces. The MoU also intends to leverage the well-developed supply chain, vast experience and expertise of BEL and L&T to synergise and enhance exports in the defence sector.

8) UN launches road safety trust fund

  • United Nations (UN) has launched a UN Road Safety Trust Fund to spur action that could save lives and prevent the loss of opportunity associated with road accidents.
  • The fund has been launched in wake of tragic road accidents in Canada and India.  As per data provided by UN Deputy Secretary-General Amina Mohammed, around 1.3 million drivers, passengers and pedestrians die each year, and up to 50 million are injured on the world’s roads.
  • UN Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) is the secretariat for the trust fund.According to UNECE, every USD 1500 contributed to the fund could save one life, prevent 10 serious injuries, and leverage USD 51000 towards investments in road safety.

9) 17-year-old Pune swimmer double crosses Bangla Channel, sets world record

  • Sampanna Ramesh Shelar, a 17-year-old swimmer from Pune has set a world record to double cross the Bangla Channel.
  •  Water stretch from Saint Martin’s Island Jetty to Teknaf in Bangladesh is known as the Bangla ChannelSampanna Ramesh Shelar has become the first person to double cross (swim to and fro) the Bangla Channel.

10) President of India Receives first copy of book ‘Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar: Vyakti Nahin Sankalp’

  • On 14th April 2018, President Ram Nath Kovind received the first copy of the book ‘Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar: Vyakti Nahin Sankalp’ from Vice President M. Venkaiah Naidu, who formally released it at a function at Rashtrapati Bhavan, New Delhi.
  • Ram Nath Kovind said that, the book was a slim volume but covered the inspiring life of Dr Ambedkar and several dimensions of his ideas and personality. It also referenced how Prime Minister Narendra Modi has been inspired by the life and message of Dr Ambedkar.



1) AIIB decides to invest $140M to improve Rural Connectivity in India

  • Approximately 1.5 Million rural residents in State of Madhya Pradesh are going to directly benefit from improved livelihoods, education and mobility with the USD $ 140-Million loan approved by the Board of Directors of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) in a Meeting held recently in Beijing.
  • The Project, co-financed with the World Bank, aims to improve the rural road connectivity and management for residents of about 5,640 villages who use the rural roads for daily activities.

2) NHAI signs agreement for its First International Project

  • To provide seamless vehicular movement for enhancing trade, business, health, education and tourism between Indian, Myanmar and Thailand, the National Highways Authority of India has signed an agreement for upgradation of Yagyi – Kalewa section of highway (Milepost 40/0 to Milepost 115/5) in Myanmar to two lane with earthen shoulder.
  • The agreement was signed by NHAI with M/s Punj Lloyd Ltd. – Varaha Infra Ltd. (JV).
  • The project has been funded by Ministry of External Affairs, Government of India and would be executed on EPC mode at a cost of Rs.1177 crores.

3) AAI to develop Myanmar’s Kalay Airport

  • The Airports Authority of India (AAI) has signed an agreement with the Ministry of External Affairs, for preparation of a Detailed Project Report (DPR) on the first phase for development of the Kalay Airport as a green airport in Myanmar.
  • AAI had developed more than 60 airports in metro and non-metro cities in India and now AAI wants to leverage its expertise to other countries on bigger scale.

4) 65th National Film Awards- Complete List Of Winners

  • The 65th National Film Awards were announced in Shastri Bhawan, New Delhi. The chairpersons of the three juries (Feature, Non-feature and Writing) for the National Film Awards have announced the awards for the different categories. This year, the jury is being headed by director Shekhar Kapur. The jury panel has 10 members. National Film Awards will be given by the President Ram Nath Kovind in May 2018.
  • Here’s the complete list of awards:

    Dada Saheb Phalke Award: Vinod Khanna

    Best Director: Jayaraj for Bhayanakam (Malayalam)

    Best Film: Village Rockstars (Assamese)

    Best Popular Film: Baahubali 2

    Special Mention Awards: Murakhiya (Marathi Film ); Hello RC (Odia film); Take Off (Malayalam film); Pankaj Tripathi (for Newton); Malayalam actor Parvathy (for Take Off)

    Best Regional Film: Ladhakh

    Best Marathi Film: Kaccha Limbu

    Best Malayam Film: Thondimuthalum Driksakshiyum

    Best Hindi Film: Newton

    Best Bengali Film: Mayurakshi

    Best Assamese Film: Ishu

    Best Tamil Film: To Let

    Best Telugu: Gazi

    Best Gujarati: DHH

    Best Action Direction: Baahubali 2

    Best Choreography: Toilet Ek Prem Katha (Ganesh Acharya is the choreographer)

     Best Film Critic: Giridhar Jha

    Special Mention for Film Criticism: Sunil Mishra of Madhya Pradesh

    Best Special Effects: Baahubali 2

    Special Jury Award: Nagar Kirtan(Bengali)

    Best lyrics: Muthu Ratna, for Kannada film March 22

    Best Music Direction: A R Rahman for Kaatru Veliyidai

    Background score: AR Rahman for Mom

    Best supporting actress: Divya Dutta, Irada (Hindi Film)

    Best Supporting Actor: Fahad Faazil

    Best Actress: Sridevi for Mom

    Best Actor: Ridhhi Sen, Nagar Kirtan

    Best Film for National Integration: Dhappa (Marathi)

5) COMMONWEALTH GAMES 2018: Gold Coast 2018

  • Wrestler Bajrang Punia won his first Commonwealth Games gold medal, defeating Wales’ Kane Charig by technical superiority in the men’s freestyle 65 kg final in Gold Coast, Australia. This is India’s fifth medal in wrestling in this edition, with Rahul Aware and Sushil Kumar registering gold wins earlier. Bajrang had won a silver medal at the 2014 Commonwealth Games.
  • Five-time world champion and Olympic bronze medallist MC Mary Kom has become the first Indian woman boxer to win a gold medal at the Commonwealth Games. Mary Kom achieved the feat after defeating Northern Ireland’s Kristina O’Hara in the 45-48kg category final at Gold Coast, Australia. The 35-year-old boxer from Manipur is participating in her maiden Commonwealth Games.
  • Nineteen-year-old Naman Tanwar won India its first boxing medal at the 2018 Commonwealth Games, winning a bronze in the men’s 91 kg category. Naman lost out to Australia’s Jason Whateley in the semifinal of the event to secure the bronze. India has won a total of 35 medals, including 16 golds, 8 silver and 11 bronze medals so far.
  • Medal Tally (As on 13th April 2018):
    1. Australia- 176 (69 Gold)
    2. England- 110 (37 Gold)
    3. India- 47 (20 Gold)

6) Jayant Sinha to head Task Force for UAV technology

  • The Government has decided to constitute a Task Force under the chairmanship of Shri Jayant Sinha, Minister of State for Civil Aviation for fast-tracking the roll-out of   Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology.
  • The Task Force will develop a roadmap with implementable recommendations for Central as well as State Governments, Industry and Research Institutions.
  • The Task Force will consist of representatives from the Government, PSUs, industry and sectoral experts and submit report within 6 months of its constitution.
  • The Headquarters of the Task Force will be at Ministry of Civil Aviation, New Delhi.

7) Late Veteran Actor Vinod Khanna Awarded Dadasaheb Phalke Award

  • Veteran Hindi film actor Shri Vinod Khanna was awarded the Dadasaheb Phalke Award for his contribution to Indian Cinema. This was announced during the 65th National Film Awards. 
  • Some of the other prominent winners in various categories for this year National Film Awards included Assamese movie ‘Village Rockstars’ in Best Feature Film category and ‘Baahubali – The Conclusion’ in the Best Popular Film providing Wholesome Entertainment category. The Feature Film Central panel was headed by Shekhar Kapur.

8) Germany top FIFA rankings, Brazil second

  • On 12th April 2018, the latest FIFA rankings were released in which Germany has secured the top position followed by Brazil in the second position.
  • Germany has secured the top position in FIFA rankings with 1533 points. Brazil has reached second position with 1384 points. Tunisia has improved nine places and reached 14th place. This is their highest ever position. It is the highest position for any African country, since Ivory Coast obtained 13th rank in July 2013.

9) Jio, Sodexo join hands to accelerate digital transformation

  • On 12th April 2018, Reliance Jio and Sodexo announced their tie-up to accelerate India’s digital transformation. Jio Money, the Prepaid Payment Instrument (PPI) wallet of Jio Payments Bank Ltd., has enabled integration of Sodexo Meal Cards with the Jio Money account of its users. This will allow mobile-based payments through Sodexo Meal Card.
  • Hence Sodexo merchants in India can accept digital payments through Sodexo. Sodexo Meal Pass can be linked to the Jio Money app to perform quick payments.


1) Nitin Gadkari Inaugurated Inland Ferry Services In Goa

  • Union Minister of Road Transport and Highways, Shipping and Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation Nitin Gadkari inaugurated Mormugao Port Trust and Drishti Marine’s ambitious inland ferry services in Goa.
  • The inaugural plaque was unveiled at the newly constructed Airport Ferry Terminal (AFT) at Baina beach in the distinguished presence of state ministers. The ferry service is aimed at adding quality experience to tourists visiting the coastal state.

2) NITI Aayog, Piramal Foundation Inks Agreement

  • NITI Aayog and Piramal Foundation have inked Statement of Intent (SoI) to work closely with District Collectors and key officers of ‘Aspirational Districts’ to support their transformation in terms of healthcare, education and nutrition.
  • Under the SoI with NITI Aayog, Piramal Foundation will work in close conjunction with district administration, Central Prabhari Officers, State Prabhari Officers, state government and concerned Central ministries to improve identified indicators by strengthening existing public systems specifically in health and nutrition and education sectors.

3) MSDE – Ministry of Agriculture inks MoU for skill development training programs

  • Union Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship (MSDE) and Union Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers’ Welfare have signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) to conduct skill development training programmes for agriculture and allied sector.
  • As per the terms of the MoU, skill development training programmes will be conducted on a regular basis at Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVKs).
  • The MoU will be instrumental in achieving government’s goal of developing agriculture as a private enterprise so that it attracts more youth. Union Minister of Agriculture and Farmers’ Welfare Radha Mohan Singh has expressed hope that this MoU will contribute in realising Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s dream of Kaushal Bharat-Kushal Bharat.

4) Vienna is world’s most liveable city: Quality of Living Survey by Mercer

  • As per 20th annual Quality of Living survey by Mercer, Austrian capital Vienna has been named the world’s best city to live in for the ninth consecutive year.Mercer’s annual Quality of Living survey assesses living conditions in 231 cities of the world on 39 factors, grouped under 10 broad categories.
  • The 10 categories are: Political and social environment, Economic environment, Socio-cultural environment, Medical and health considerations, Schools and education, Public services and transportation, Recreation, availability of Consumer goods, Housing and Natural Environment.
  • Findings of this survey enable multinational companies and other organisations to compensate employees appropriately when placing them on international assignments.
  • In this year’s edition, a separate ranking on City Sanitation has also been provided.This ranking is based on assessment of cities’ waste removal and sewage infrastructure, levels of infectious disease, air pollution, water availability and quality.
  • Most Liveable Cities – Top 5:
    1 Vienna, Austria
    2 Zurich, Switzerland
    3 Auckland, New Zealand
    4 Munich, Germany
    5 Vancouver, Canada

5) Kerala Declares Jackfruit As Official Fruit Of State

  • Jackfruit has attained a respected status with the state government declaring it as the official fruit of Kerala. Kerala has been producing around 30 to 60 crore jackfruits every year.As per the officials, the state can generate a revenue of around Rs 30,000 crore through value-added jackfruit products.

6) Singapore Airport Rated World’s Best, Mumbai Ranked 63rd

  • The Singapore Changi Airport has been named the world’s best airport for the sixth consecutive year by consultancy firm Skytrax. The Incheon International Airport in South Korea and Haneda Airport in Japan were placed second and third respectively.
  • While the Mumbai airport (Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport Mumbai) has been ranked 63rd, the airports in Bangalore (Kempegowda International Airport) and Delhi (Indira Gandhi International Airport) are at 64th and 66th place respectively.

7) German President Frank-Walter Steinmeier On 5-Day Visit To India

  • German President Frank-Walter Steinmeier will arrive in New Delhi on a five-day visit to India. This will be his first visit to India as the President of Germany. He will visit Varanasi.
  • The German President is also scheduled to attend a business event in New Delhi and visit to Chennai. Germany is India’s largest trading partner in Europe and the 6th largest trading partner in the world.

8) 105th Indian Science Congress- NHAI Receives Best Design Pavilion Award

  • The NHAI (National Highways Authority of India) pavilion at 105th Indian Science Congress has been adjudged as Best Design Pavilion. The award was conferred by Dr. Najma Heptulla, Governor of Manipur.
  • The NHAI had put up an exhibition stall to showcase its Projects and other initiatives like Electronic Toll Collection, Wayside Amenities, Incident Management, Swachh Bharat Abhiyan, Road Safety etc.

9) China to build ‘world’s fastest’ wind tunnel

  • China has announced that, it is constructing the world’s fastest wind tunnel. It is said that, it would be the world’s fastest hypersonic wind tunnel. It would be used to help in the development of spacecraft.
  • A Chinese researcher has said that, the 265 meter-long tunnel would be used to test hypersonic aircraft that can travel up to a speed of 30,625 kph. This speed is 25 times the speed of sound.

10) World Water Day- 22 March

  • The World Water Day is observed on 22 March every year, to raise awareness about the importance of water. The theme this year is, ‘Nature for Water’ – exploring nature-based solutions to the water challenges the world faces in the 21st century.
  • An international day to celebrate freshwater was recommended at the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro. The United Nations General Assembly responded by designating 22 March 1993 as the first World Water Day.


1) Karnataka cabinet approves separate religion status for Lingayats

  • On March 19, 2018, Karnataka State Government under Chief Minister Siddaramaiah (belonging to Congress Party) approved the separate religion status for the Lingayat community.
  • Lingayat community owes allegiance to the 12th century social reform movement initiated by Basaveshwara. The community constitutes about 17 percent of Karnataka’s population mainly residing in northern parts of the state.
  • Lingayats have been demanding a separate religion status since long time. Besides, a seven-member committee, formed by Karnataka State Minorities Commission which submitted its report on March 2, 2018 recommended that Lingayats in Karnataka may be considered as a religious minority.

2) Bihar Governor Satya Pal Mallik Gets Additional Charge Of Odisha

  • Bihar Governor Satya Pal Malik will discharge the functions of Odisha Governor in addition to his own duties till regular arrangements are made. Odisha Governor SC Jamir completed his tenure.
  • Mr Jamir has earlier served as chief minister of Nagaland for five times, was an union deputy minister in the cabinet Jawaharlal Nehru and governors of Maharashtra, Gujarat and Goa.

3) GIC Re To Operate From Lloyd’s In London

  • General Insurance Corporation is going to start operations at the Lloyd’s London office in April  2018 thereby increasing its share of international business. This will also facilitate Indian becoming a regional reinsurance center.
  • This will help GIC Re increase its share of international reinsurance business. The company had received approval to set up a syndicate at Lloyd’s of London in December 2017. GIC Syndicate 1947 will be the first Lloyd’s syndicate to be backed solely by capital from an Indian reinsurance group.

4) Indian Army Releases Book On Paramveer Chakra Awardees

  • General Bipin Rawat, Chief of the Army Staff released a book on Paramveer Chakra Awardees – ‘Paramveer Parwane’. The book illustrates the bravery of Paramveer Chakra Awardees from 1947 to 1965. The book is written by Dr Prabhakiran Jain and is published by Medha Books.
  • The book has eleven short stories, poems, and songs highlighting the history of the battles in which the brave soldiers sacrificed their lives and have shown the utmost courage & leadership while facing the enemy during War to protect the motherland.

5) Myanmar President, Htin Kyaw Resigns

  • Myanmar’s President and Aung San Suu Kyi’s right-hand man Htin Kyaw stepped down after two years in the position. As per the official report, a new leader would be selected “within seven working days”

6) NCAA becomes World’s First Trusted Digital Repository

  • India’s National Cultural Audiovisual Archives (NCAA) has been certified as the world’s first Trusted Digital Repository as per ISO 16363:2012 standard, granted by Primary Trustworthy Digital Repository Authorisation Body Ltd. (PTAB), United Kingdom.
  • NCAA is a project of the Union Ministry of Culture, implemented by Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts (IGNCA).
  • Objective of NCAA is to identify and preserve India’s cultural heritage available in audiovisual form through a process of digitization and making it accessible to the people. By end of March 2018, a corpus of 30000 hours of unpublished, non-commercial audio & video recordings will be made online at NCAA repository.

7) G-20 Ministers meeting held in Argentina

  • First G20 meeting of finance ministers and central bank governors under Presidency of Argentina was held on 19th and 20th March 2018 in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
  • The meeting was attended by 22 finance ministers, 17 Central Bank Governors and 10 heads of international organizations, including International Monetary Fund (IMF) Managing Director, Christine Lagarde and Administrator of the United Nations Development Programme, Achim Steiner.
  • Discussions at the this two-day meeting revolved around  infrastructure development and the future of work in the digital arena. Interestingly, concerns over U.S. President Donald Trump’s decision to slap import tariffs on steel and aluminium, which may trigger a global trade war were not discussed at this meeting.

8) 106th Indian Science Congress To Be Held In Bhopal

  • General President-elect of Indian Science Congress Manoj Kumar Chakrabarti announced that the 106th edition of the Indian Science Congress will be held in January 2019 at Barkatullah University Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh.The theme for 2019 ISC will be “Future India: Science & Technology”.

9) Government Approves Plastic Park To Be Set Up In Deoghar, Jharkhand

  • Union Minister for Chemicals & Fertilizers and Parliamentary Affairs, Mr. Ananthkumar announced that the Government of India has approved the setting up of a Plastic Park in Deoghar District, Jharkhand.
  • The project would be set up at a cost of Rs. 120 crores in an area of 150 acres. Mr. Ananthkumar also announced the setting up of Rs. 3.5 crore Plastic Recycling unit at Deoghar to tackle the menace of plastic waste being generated due to the place being a tourist attraction.

10) Katrina Kaif becomes brand ambassador for international non-profit organization ‘Educate Girls’

  • Bollywood actress Katrina Kaif has been named the brand ambassador of ‘Educate Girls’, an international non-profit organisation.
  • As brand ambassador of Educate Girls, Katrina Kaif will work towards creating equal opportunities for girls to access quality education. Educate Girls involves the families, village leaders, local administration and school authorities in its efforts towards educating girls.

11) Team USA concludes Paralympic Winter Games Pyeong Chang 2018 with most successful performance in 16 years

  • On 18th March 2018, the Paralympic Winter Games Pyeong Chang 2018 in South Korea, concluded with Team USA having its most successful performance in 16 years.
  • Team USA consisted of 74 athletes. It grabbed a total of 36 medals and topped the overall medal count. This is Team USA’s highest medal count since 2002 when it won 43 medals.
  • It also topped the gold medal count for the first time since 1992. It topped the overall gold medal count and also the gold medals won on each day of the Games.


1) PM Modi Lays Foundation Stone Of Navi Mumbai Airport

  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi laid the foundation stone of the Navi Mumbai International Airport site in Panvel, nearly 21 years after it was mooted.
  • The first phase the Rs 16,700-crore project is expected to be completed by 2019. This is the country’s largest greenfield airport. Navi Mumbai airport will have capacity of handling 60 million passengers.

2) First India-Japan Workshop on Disaster Risk Reduction inaugurated in New Delhi

  • On March 19, 2018, Vice-Chairman of NITI Aayog, Dr. Rajiv Kumar inaugurated the First India-Japan Workshop on Disaster Risk Reduction in New Delhi.
  • This workshop has been jointly organised by the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), Union Ministry of Home Affairs and Government of Japan. It is the first formal initiative under the Memorandum of Cooperation (MoC) on Disaster Risk Reduction signed between India and Japan in September 2017.
  • Speaking at the occasion, Dr. Rajiv Kumar outlined a six-pronged approach to enhance resilience, which includes Risk Identification, Preparedness, Risk Reduction, Financial Protection, Resilient Reconstruction and Societal Awareness.

3) BHEL Commissions 1st Unit Of Kishanganga Hydro Project In Jammu & Kashmir

  • State-run power equipment maker BHEL has commissioned 1st unit of 110 MW of the Kishanganga hydroelectric project (HEP) of NHPC in Jammu and Kashmir. Located on the river Kishanganga, a tributary of the Jhelum in Bandipora district, all the three units of the 340 MW project will generate 1,350 million units (MU) of clean electricity annually.
  • The other two units are also in advanced stages of commissioning. In J&K, Bhel has so far commissioned 31 Hydro sets with a cumulative capacity of 1,257 MW.

4) Indian Navy To Host Bilateral Exercise ‘Varuna’ With French Navy

  • The Indian Navy and the French Navy have conducted bilateral maritime exercises since May 1993. Since 2001, the exercises have been named VARUNA and there have been fifteen editions of the same till date. The last edition of VARUNA was conducted off the French Coast in April 2017.
  • This year too VARUNA-18 would be conducted in three sea areas, namely, the Arabian Sea, the Bay of Bengal and South Western Indian Ocean. The conduct of VARUNA and the special impetus on taking this Navy-to-Navy cooperative engagement forward was reiterated in the Joint Statement made by the Prime Minister of India and the President of France.

5) 1st National Workshop On POSHAN Abhiyan Held In New Delhi

  • The first National workshop on POSHAN Abhiyan involving all the states and union territories was held at Pravasi Bharatiya Kendra, New Delhi. The Ministry of Women and Child Development is organising the day-long workshop with participation from all the states/UTs.
  • It is been organized to provide a complete orientation on the POSHAN Abhiyan, to explain the key components of the Abhiyaan and to provide handholding in using the software involved. The Ministry of WCD is also launching five e-ILA (e-Incremental Learning Approach) courses and two ECCE(Early Childhood Care and Education) software modules.

6) F-16 jet production unit will be set up in India

  • Lockheed Martin has announced the setting up of F-16 jet production unit in India.Lockheed Martin is an American aerospace and defence giant. It said that, the F-16 jet production unit to be set up in India will be an exclusive one and will be in line with the ‘Make in India’ initiative.
  • Lockheed Martin has assured to relocate its entire production line to India. It said that, the unit will not be a mere assembly line. It will be a better facility that has never been provided by any other fighter aircraft manufacturer earlier.

7) India And EU Signed Agreement On Sharing Earth Observation Data

  • India and the European Union (EU) have signed an agreement that will enable them to share earth observation data from each other’s satellites. The pact was inked in Bengaluru.
  • The Copernicus programme provides a wide range of applications like climate change, land, ocean and atmosphere monitoring as well as support in forecasting, management and mitigation of natural disasters. Under this arrangement, Indian Space Research Organisation ISRO will share data from its earth observation satellites.

8) IRCTC Ties Up With Ola

  • With an aim to providing first-and-last-mile connectivity, railway PSU IRCTC announced a partnership with cab aggregator Ola, giving commuters an option book taxi on its app.
  • The tie-up, a six-month pilot project, will give customers access to Ola booking services when they visit the IRCTC Rail Connect App and on its website. The Ola cab facility will provide all the services offered.

9) Li Keqiang re-elected as Prime Minister of China for second term

  • On 18th March 2018, Li Keqiang was re-elected as Chinese Prime Minister for a second five-year term.Li Keqiang became Prime Minister of China first in 2013.  He has been re-elected as Prime Minister by the members of National People’s Congress (NPC).
  • He obtained 2,964 positive votes and two negative votes. Also, Xu Qiliang and Zhang Youxia were elected as vice chairmen of Central Military Commission (CMC).

10) Purva Barve Wins Women’s Singles U-19 Title At Israel Junior 2018

  • India’s Purva Barve has won the Women’s Singles (Under-19) title at the Israel Junior 2018 Badminton tournament held in Rishon LeZion, Israel.
  • She has defeated the third-seeded and top-ranked Russian Anastasiia Pustinskaia in three sets. The title is her first in 2018 and third overall. Earlier she won the Israel Junior 2017, Italian Junior International 2017 apart from a bronze at the Russian Junior White Nights 2017.

11) International Day Of Happiness- 20 March

  • Since 2013, the United Nations has celebrated the International Day of Happiness (on 20th March) as a way to recognise the importance of happiness in the lives of people around the world. The theme for IDH 2018 is “Share Happiness” – focusing on the importance of relationships, kindness and helping each other.
  • The World Happiness Report 2018 was also released recently that ranks 156 countries by their happiness levels, and 117 countries by the happiness of their immigrants. Finland was ranked as the happiest country in the list and Burundi in East Africa is the unhappiest place in the world. India ranks 133rd in the report after Pakistan (75th), China (86th) and Nepal (101st).

12) Veteran Hindi Poet Kedarnath Singh Passes Away

  • Renowned Hindi poet and critic Kedarnath Singh passed away at the age of 83. Prof. He was the former professor and chairperson of the Department of Hindi Language at the Centre for Indian Languages at Jawaharlal Nehru University.
  • Prof. Singh was a recipient of the Jnanpith award in 2013. He won the Sahitya Akademi award in 1989 for his poetry collection Akaal Mein Saras.


1) 7th Women’s Science Congress Inaugurated In Manipur

  • The Women Science Congress, 2018 was inaugurated in the backdrop of the ongoing 105th Indian Science Congress on its 3rd day being held at Manipur University, Imphal. Keshari Nath Tripathi, Governor of West Bengal inaugurated the 7th Edition of Science Congress for women.
  • Prof.Vijay Laxmi Saxena, Former General Secretary, India Science Congress Association (ISCA) and Mrs.Namita Gupta, Scientist, Dept.of Science & Technology graced the function as guests of honours.

2) Worldwide Cost Of Living Report 2018- Singapore Most Expensive, Damascus Least

  • Singapore remains the most expensive city in the world, according to The Economist Intelligence Unit’s Worldwide Cost of Living report 2018. 
  • The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) published the Worldwide Cost of Living index 2018 for 133 cities across the world, based on a survey that compared more than 400 individual prices across over 150 products and services.
  • The Top 5 Expensive cities on the list are-
    1. Singapore.
    2. Paris, France.
    3. Zurich, Switzerland.
    4. Hong Kong, China.
    5. Oslo, Norway.

3) President Released Coins Commemorating Nabakalebara Festival

  • President Ram Nath Kovind released coins in denominations of Rs 10 and Rs 1,000 commemorating Lord Jagannath’s Nabakalebara festival observed in July 2015. He unveiled the coins at the centenary celebration of Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan in Puri, Odisha.
  • The coins had been slated for release during the mega festival, celebrated once every 12 to 19 years, but the Union finance ministry had rejected a design sent by the state government as it featured the deities’ feet.

4) KUSUM Scheme To Install Grid Connected Solar Plants In Rural India

  • The Indian government is in process of formulating ‘Kisan Urja Suraksha evam Utthan Mahabhiyan (KUSUM) scheme’ to harness solar power for rural India. The scheme will allow to setup grid-connected solar plants in rural areas.
  • KUSUM will build 10,000 MW solar plant and provide 1.75 million off-grid agricultural solar pumps. The program aims to boost farmers’ income as they can sell their additional power to the main grid produced by solar plants located on their lands.

5) LS passed amendment to stonewall scrutiny of foreign poll funding

  • The Lok Sabha has passed (without a debate) a bill that will exempt political parties from the scrutiny of funds they have received from abroad since 1976. The Lok Sabha passed amid chaotic protests by the opposition parties, 21 amendments to the Finance Bill 2018.
  • One of them was an amendment to the Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act, 2010 that bans overseas corporations from funding political parties. This is only the third time since 2000 that Parliament has approved the budget without debate.

6) Navy Chief Sunil Lanba To Be On A 5-Day Visit To USA

  • Navy Chief Admiral Sunil Lanba is on a five-day visit to the USA. The visit aims to consolidate relations between the Armed Forces of both the nations and to explore new avenues of defence co-operation.
  • During the visit, Admiral Lanba will hold bilateral discussions with US Defence Secretary James Mattis, Secretary of the Navy Richard Spencer among others. The Admiral will also visit the Pacific Command Headquarters at Pearl Harbour in Hawaii, the Naval Surface Warfare Centre Dahlgren, the Pentagon and Arlington National Cemetery in Washington DC.

7) Vladimir Putin Wins Historic 4th Term As Russian President

  • Russian President Vladimir Putin stormed to victory in presidential election, giving him another six years in power. Putin, who has ruled Russia for almost two decades, won more than 75% of the vote according to preliminary results.
  • He is well ahead of his nearest rival Communist Party candidate Pavel Grudinin at 13.2%. About 107 million Russians were eligible to cast ballots and turnout was 60% before polls closed in Moscow.

8) Chennaiyin FC beat Bengaluru FC to lift Hero Indian Super League (ISL) 2017-18 title

  • On 17th March 2018, Chennaiyin FC won the Hero Indian Super League (ISL) 2017-18 title at the Sree Kanteerava Stadium in Bengaluru, Karnataka.
  • Chennaiyin FC defeated Bengaluru FC 3-2 and won the Hero Indian Super League (ISL) 2017-18 title. Mailson Alves scored 2 goals and Raphael Augusto scored 1 goal for Chennaiyin FC team. Sunil Chhetri and Miku scored one goal each for Bengaluru FC team.

9) Himachal CM launches ‘Mahila Suraksha’ handbook on women safety

  • On 14th March 2018, Himachal Pradesh Chief Minister Jai Ram Thakur released ‘Mahila Suraksha’, a handbook on women’s safety.The ‘Mahila Suraksha’ handbook has been brought out by the Shimla administration. It explains personal safety measures and safeguards related to crimes, and also about sexual harassment at workplace.
  • It also has important telephone and helpline numbers. Jai Ram Thakur said that, the efforts of Shimla administration to bring out a handbook in Braille in both English and Hindi will help the visually challenged women.

10) Indian Wells 2018- Complete List Of Winners

  • The Indian Wells Masters, also known as BNP Paribas Open and the WTA Indian Wells Open, is an annual tennis tournament held in March at the Indian Wells Tennis Garden in Indian Wells, California, United States.
  • Former US Open champion Juan Martin Del Potro stunned top-ranked Roger Federer to win his first Indian Wells title and second consecutive ATP crown. Unseeded Naomi Osaka became the first Japanese player to win the Indian Wells final, routing Russian Daria Kasatkina for her first WTA Tour title.
  • Here is the complete list of Indian Wells Title:

    S.No. Category Winner Runner Up
    1. Men’s Singles Juan Martin Del Potro
    Roger Federer
    2. Women’s Singles Naomi Osaka
    Daria Kasatkina
    3. Men’s Doubles  John Isner (United States)
    Jack Sock (United States)
    Bob Bryan (United States)
    Mike Bryan (United States)
    4. Women’s Doubles Hsieh Su-wei (Chinese Taipei)
    Barbora Strycova (Czech Republic)
    Ekaterina Makarova (Russia)
    Elena Vesnina (Russia)


1) India And ADB Signed $120 Million Loan To Improve Rail Infrastructure

  • India and the Asian Development Bank (ADB) signed a $120 million loan agreement for completion of works for double-tracking and electrification of railways tracks along high-density corridors to improve the operational efficiency of Indian railways.
  • The tranche 3 loan is part of the $500 million multi-tranche financing facility for Railway Sector Investment Program approved by the ADB Board in 2011. ADB loan has a 20-year term, including a grace period of 5 years, an annual interest rate determined in accordance with ADB’s London interbank offered rate (LIBOR)-based lending facility.

2) NITI Aayog Released SATH-E Roadmaps

  • NITI Aayog released comprehensive roadmaps and detailed timelines for its initiative ‘Sustainable Action for Transforming Human Capital in Education (SATH-E)’ project. Amitabh Kant, CEO, NITI Aayog released the forward-looking blueprints.
  • These roadmaps, which operate between 2018 to 2020, lay out detailed interventions which will be taken by the three participating States- Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh and Odisha – aiming to become ‘Role Model States’ in school education.

3) Dharmendra Pradhan inaugurates Delhi Energy Dialogue (DED) 2018

  • On March 14, 2018, Union Minister for Petroleum and Natural Gas, Dharmendra Pradhaninaugurated the first edition of Delhi Energy Dialogue (DED) 2018 in New Delhi.
  • The dialogue was organised by Ashden India Collective (AIC) in alliance with the Climate Parliament and The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI).
  • The dialogue served as a platform for stakeholders in the field of energy and power to deliberate on key developments and challenges for ‘energy for all’ in India.
  • While inaugurating the dialogue, Mr. Pradhan stated that India is a happening place for energy as every day 40 million people are going to hydrocarbon retail points to meet their demand and 190 million people are getting the benefit of subsidies.

4) Asia-Pacific Regional Conference of IACP held in New Delhi

  • On 14th March 2018, Union Home Minister Rajnath Singh inaugurated the two-day Asia-Pacific Regional Conference of the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) at Vigyan Bhawan, New Delhi.
  • Theme of the conference: Challenges to Policing in 2020 – How is Cyber Space shaping our approach to Cybercrime and Terrorism, how do we perform within it and take advantage of it. The conference was organised by the Asia-Pacific World Regional Office (APWRO) of IACP along with Intelligence Bureau.Intelligence Bureau Director Rajiv Jain was the host of the conference.
  • Main focus of the conference: discussions on exploitation of cyber space by terrorist or organized groups for committing crimes and illegal activities. Ways to prevent such activities was discussed.

5) President Ram Nath Kovind’s six day Visit to Mauritius & Madagascar

  • Indian President Ram Nath Kovind was on a six-day official visit to island nations of Mauritius and Madagascar from March 11, 2018. Besides, President Kovind’s visit to Madagascar was the first ever visit by an Indian President and he was chief guest at the island nation’s golden jubilee of independence celebrations, a high honour.
  • On March 13, 2018, President Ram Nath Kovind inaugurated the World Hindi Secretariat building in Mauritius. India announced a new USD 100 million Line of Credit for defence procurement by Mauritius.

6) India ranks 78th on WEF Energy Transition Index, topped by Sweden

  • Energy Transition Index benchmarks 114 countries on the current level of their energy system performance, and the readiness of their macro environment for transition to a secure, sustainable, affordable and inclusive future energy system.
  • The index is a part of first edition of ‘Fostering Effective Energy Transition report’, prepared by World Economic Forum (WEF) with analytical support from McKinsey & Company. 
  • Energy Transition Index – Top 5:
    1 Sweden
    2 Norway
    3 Switzerland
    4 Finland
    5 Denmark


7) Deepa Malik Becomes Asian Rank 1 In Javelin F-53 Category

  • Indian para-athlete Deepa Malik won a gold medal in the F-53/54 category javelin event at the World Para Athletics Grand Prix in Dubai.
  • With this, she became the Asian rank one in the F-53 category. With the win, Deepa has also qualified for the 2018 Asian Para Games in Indonesia, scheduled to be held in October 2018.

8) Sangeeta Bahadur Appointed Next Ambassador Of India To Belarus

  • Sangeeta Bahadur has been appointed as the next Ambassador of India to the Republic of Belarus. She is an IFS officer of 1987 batch. She is currently Additional Secretary in Ministry of External Affairs

9) GST, 2nd Highest Tax Rate In World: World Bank Report

  • According to the World Bank Report, The goods and services tax (GST) is one of the most complex with the second highest tax rate in the world among a sample of 115 countries which have a similar indirect tax system.
  • India’s GST structure has five tax slabs of 0, 5%, 12%, 18%, and 28%. Further, there are several exempted sales and exports are zero-rated, which allows exporters to claim the refund for taxes paid on inputs. As many as 49 countries around the world have a single slab of GST, while 28 countries use two slabs, and only five countries, including India, use four non-zero slabs.

10) Larry Kudlow Becomes Trump’s New Economic Adviser

  • President Donald Trump named Larry Kudlow as the next head of the White House National Economic Council. He has replaced Gary Cohn. Mr Kundlow is the conservative media analyst who served as his informal economic adviser during the 2016 campaign.

11) Veteran actress Simi Garewal wins UK Golden Flame Award

  • On 15th March 2018, Indian actress Simi Garewal received the “UK Golden Flame Award” at the opening ceremony of the Tongues of Fire UK Asian Film Festival in London.
  • Simi Garewal is an actress and a talk show host. She has been honoured with this award for her contribution to Indian cinema. The Tongues of Fire UK Asian Film Festival is held between 15 and 25 March 2018. It is held in London, Leicester, Manchester and Edinburgh.

12) Nepal gains one-day international status for the first time

  • On 15th March 2018, Nepal cricket team gained One-Day International (ODI) status for the first time.Nepal cricket team has gained ODI status after it won over Papua New Guinea by six wickets in the World Cup Qualifiers in Zimbabwe on 15thMarch 2018.
  • This is a significant achievement for Nepal as that Nepal cricket board is currently suspended by ICC.