Question of the day | Legal terms lists of the day September 29, 2018

Question of the day

Question: The Supreme Court held that evidence can be recorded by video-conferencing in the case

(a) State of Maharashtra v. Praful B. Desai

(b) Paramjit Kaur v. State of Punjab

(c) Pappu Yadav v. State of Bihar

(d) Bachan Singh v. the State of Punjab

Legal terms of the day

1. EX GRATIA –Out of kindness, voluntary.

2. EX PARTE –Proceeding brought by one person in the absence of another.

3. EX POST FACTO –By reason of a subsequent act.

4. FACTUM –An act or deed.

5. HABEAS CORPUS –Produce the body.


Today’s answer of the question: A


India, United Nations sign Sustainable Development Framework for 2018-2022

India and the United Nations on September 28, 2018 signed the Government of India-United Nations Sustainable Development Framework (UNSDF) for 2018-2022.

The framework was signed by Amitabh Kant, CEO NITI Aayog and United Nations Resident Coordinator in India, Yuri Afanasiev. The signing ceremony was presided over by NITI Aayog Vice Chairperson Dr. Rajiv Kumar, members of NITI Aayog and the heads of UN agencies in India.

Government of India-United Nations Sustainable Development Framework (UNSDF) 2018-2022

• The Framework outlines the work of UN agencies in India to support the achievement of key development outcomes that have been identified in consultation with the government and are aligned to the national priorities. 

• The NITI Aayog is the national counterpart for the UN in India for the operationalisation of the UNSDF.

• Nineteen UN agencies have signed on the UNSDF 2018-2022.

Seven priority areas of UNSDF 2018-22
The UNSDF 2018-22 comprises of seven priority areas that outline the work that UN agencies will undertake jointly or individually fully aligned with the priorities of the Union Government.

The seven priority areas outlined in the UNSDF are:

1. Poverty and Urbanization

2. Health, Water, and Sanitation

3. Education and Employability

4. Nutrition and Food Security

5. Climate Change, Clean Energy, and Disaster Resilience

6. Skilling, Entrepreneurship, and Job Creation

7. Gender Equality and Youth Development.

United Nations in India

The United Nations system in India includes 26 organisations that have the privilege to serve in India. The Resident Coordinator, the designated representative of the UN Secretary-General to the Government, leads the UN Country Team to advocate the mandate of the United Nations.

Yuri Afanasiev is the UN Resident Coordinator and UNDP Resident Representative in India. He assumed his duties in July 2015.

Model Code will come into force on premature dissolution of state assembly: EC

The Election Commission of India on September 27, 2018 announced that the Model Code of Conduct will be applicable to the caretaker government till the formation of new government, in case of premature dissolution of state assembly.

The poll panel cited the Supreme Court verdict in the SR Bommai case that the caretaker government should merely carry on day-to-day governance and desist from taking any policy decisions.

Until now, the model code of conduct was applicable only with announcement of poll schedule by the Election Commission.

What is Model Code of Conduct?
The Model Code of Conduct is a set of guidelines released by the Election Commission of India to conduct free and fair elections in the country.

These guidelines lay out the instructions to be followed by both candidates and political parties contesting elections. These instructions on campaigning, general conduct and meetings remain effective till the entire elections process is not completed.

Highlights of the directions

• In cases of premature dissolution of legislative assembly, the model code of conduct shall come into operation with immediate effect and continue to remain in force till completion of the election to constitute the new assembly.

• These provisions of the Part-VII of Model Code of Conduct shall apply on the caretaker state government as well as on the Central Government. Para-VII lays down boundaries for the party in power and defines boundaries for conduct of government in the poll-bound state regarding policy decisions.

• As per the directions, neither the caretaker state government nor the Union Government will announce any new schemes and projects or undertake any of the activities prohibited under the Model Code of Conduct. 

• All other prohibitions including the use of resources for any non-official purposes and combining of an official visit with electioneering work will apply on all ministers and other authorities of the caretaker state government, the Central government as well as governments of other States. 

• The poll panel also cited earlier Supreme Court’s order that the caretaker government should merely carry on the day-to-day government and desist from taking any major policy decision.

Directions will have impact on poll-bound Telangana

This significant order will have an immediate impact in poll-bound Telangana.

The Telangana Cabinet on September 6, 2018 passed a resolution calling for the dissolution of the Telangana Legislative Assembly. Chief Minister K Chandrasekhar Rao convened the meeting of his Council of Ministers to dissolve the Legislative Assembly and seek fresh elections, six months ahead of schedule. 

Telangana Governor ESL Narasimhan accepted the recommendation of the Telangana cabinet, however, asked Rao and his council of ministers to continue as the caretaker government.

NITI Aayog, UN sign Sustainable Development Framework for 2018-2022

NITI Aayog and United Nations in India on September 28, 2018 signed the Sustainable Development Framework (UNSDF) for 2018-2022 at an event in New Delhi. The agreement is a reflection of the commitment and efforts made by India towards attaining the Sustainable Development Goals. 

The framework was signed by the NITI Aayog CEO Amitabh Kant and United Nations Resident Coordinator in India Yuri Afanasiev at a special signing ceremony presided over by NITI Aayog Vice Chairperson Rajiv Kumar. 


Rajiv Kumar emphasised that the period between 2018 and 2022 will be a crucial phase in India’s development story since the year 2022 marks the 75th anniversary of India’s Independence.  

Hence, at such a time, partnership instruments such as the UNSDF assume gain even more significance to accelerate the pace towards building a New India by 2022, an India that is free of poverty and equal for all.

Key Features of UNSDF

• The framework outlines the development cooperation strategy between the Union Government and the United Nations country team in India, in support of the achievement of India’s key national development priorities and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

• The framework was created following a highly participative process, in consultation with government entities, civil society representatives, academia and the private sector. 

• The key focus areas of the framework include poverty and urbanisation, health, water, sanitation, education, nutrition and food security, climate change, clean energy, and disaster resilience, skilling, entrepreneurship, and job creation and gender equality and youth development. 

• Under the framework, the United Nations will support the Union Government on south-south cooperation, in partnership with the Ministry of External Affairs. 

• The total planned budget outlay for the implementation of the UNSDF 2018-2022 is approximately Rs 11000 crore, of which 47 percent is planned to be mobilised through the course of implementation from multiple sources, including the private sector and the government.

Speaking on the occasion, NITI Aayog CEO Amitabh Kant, highlighted the need to promote innovation in meeting India’s development challenges and bringing on board the power of social entrepreneurs and the private sector to act on scale.

Other Details

• The framework is a step in the direction of the overarching principle of the SDGs to leave no one behind. 

• The programmatic work outlined in the UNSDF targets the seven low-income states -Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, MP, Odisha, Rajasthan, UP and the North-East region along with the aspirational districts identified earlier this year by the NITI Aayog. 

• The work under the framework will mainly focus on improving the lives of the most marginalized, poor, and vulnerable communities and people in the country, especially women and girls.

• The framework also includes a set of UN flagship programs that are aligned with major government schemes. The flagship programmes will aim to provide innovative, multi-sectoral solutions to some of the most pressing development challenges faced by India, while also serving as catalysts for an increased investment of development finance. 

• The programmes range from affordable housing for the poor to increasing access to clean energy in rural off-grid areas, from protecting all children from vaccine-preventable diseases to quality education for all children and skilling for young people, especially young girls and from ending stunting to improving the child sex ratio.

Government approves constitution of High-Level Advisory Group to review India’s global trade strategy

The Union Commerce Minister, Suresh Prabhu, has approved the constitution of a High-Level Advisory Group (HLAG) to make recommendations for identifying opportunities and addressing challenges in order to find a way forward for India in the contemporary global trade scenario. 

The key responsibility of the group will be to consider ways for boosting India’s share and importance in global merchandise and services trade, managing pressing bilateral trade relations and mainstreaming new age policymaking.

Terms of reference of HLAG

• To examine the prevailing international trade dynamics and rising protectionist tendencies, especially on the part of major economies.

• To examine non-engagement by some countries on outstanding trade negotiation issues and commitments, including the Doha Development Agenda and their insistence on pursuing negotiating mandates.

• To build consensus and common understanding.

• To suggest a way forward for India in light of the examination, taking into account its interests and sensitivities.

• To provide options for a balanced approach for the global community to build on achievements thus far and create a conducive global trade framework and move forward in a harmonious and consensual manner that is acceptable to all.

Composition of the Group

The HLAG will be chaired by Surjit S Bhalla, who is the Director of Oxus Research and Investments.

The other members of the group will include former Foreign Secretary S Jaishankar, former Commerce Secretary and Member Rajeev Kher, Principal Economic Advisor Sanjeev Sanyal, Quality Council of India Chairman Adil Zainulbha, former DDG at WTO Harshavardhan Singh, DG NCAER Shekhar Shah, Foreign Policy Advisor Vijay Chauthaiwale, IIM Professor Pulok Ghosh, former Ambassador of India to the WTO Jayant Dasgupta, CII’s DG Chandrajit Banerjee and Rajiv K Luthra of Luthra&Luthra.

Other Details

The group may consider possible approaches and suggest a pragmatic framework for India’s future engagement in international trade.

It may also suggest the manner in which India can play a more proactive and constructive role in working with the international community in exploring and building consensus on resolving emergent trade-related issues.

The High-Level Group would meet regularly over the next two months and make specific implementable recommendations in light of its terms of reference on each of the areas, to facilitate the formulation of future trade policies.

The group may also invite special dignitaries whose inputs may be considered necessary. The Centre for WTO Studies (CWTOS) in New Delhi shall provide the secretariat to the group.

Finance Minister launches Financial Inclusion Index, Jan Dhan Darshak app

The Union Minister of Finance and Corporate Affairs, Arun Jaitley launched the Financial Inclusion Index (FII) in New Delhi on September 24, 2018. The index was launched after the Finance Minister’s annual performance review meeting with the CEOs of public sector banks. 

The annual index will be released by the Department of Financial Services (DFS) under the Ministry of Finance by the end of this year and it would rate states on their performance on last-mile banking services availability. The index will be a measure of access and usage of a basket of formal financial products and services that includes savings, remittances, credit, insurance and pension products.

The index will include the following three measurement dimensions:

(i) Access to financial services 

(ii) Usage of financial services 

(iii) Quality

Key Highlights

• The single composite index gives a snapshot of the level of financial inclusion that would guide the macro policy perspective. 

• The various components of the index will help measure financial services for use of internal policy making. The index can also be used directly as a composite measure in development indicators. 

• Further, the index enables fulfilment of G20 Financial Inclusion Indicators requirements. 

• It will also facilitate researchers to study the impact of financial inclusion and other macroeconomic variables.

Jan Dhan Darshak App

  Finance Minister launches Financial Inclusion Index As a part of financial inclusion initiative, the Department of Financial Services (DFS) under the Ministry of Finance along with the National Informatics Centre (NIC) has jointly developed a mobile application called ‘Jan Dhan Darshak’.


The application will act as a guide for the common people in locating a financial service touch point at a given location in the country.

Key Details

The app will be in a unique position to provide a citizen-centric platform for locating financial service touch points across all providers such as banks, post office and common service centres (CSC).

These services could be availed as per the needs and convenience of the common people.

Over 5 lakh financial service touch points including bank branches, ATMs and post offices have been mapped on the application and approximately 1.35 lakh bank mitras would be brought on board by December 1, 2018.

The following are the salient features of the app:

• Find nearby Financial touch points,  based on the current location

• Search by place name

• Search by place name also available with Voice Interface

• Phone number of bank branches available in the app, with the facility of call button for integrated dialling

• Users’ feedback will go directly to the concerned bank for carrying out the necessary updation in data on financial touch points.

World Rabies Day

28 September is World Rabies Day. It is celebrated annually to raise awareness about rabies prevention and to highlight progress in defeating this horrifying disease. 28 September also marks the anniversary of Louis Pasteur’s death, the French chemist and microbiologist, who developed the first rabies vaccine.

Adultery No Longer a Criminal Offence, SC Strikes Down Section 497 of IPC

A five-judge Constitution Bench led by Chief Justice Dipak Misra scrapped the pre-Independence provision of adultery in the Indian Penal Code (IPC), which treats a married woman as a commodity owned by her husband.Section 497 (adultery) gives a husband the exclusive right to prosecute his wife’s lover. If found guilty, the adulterer faces five years behind bars.

Punjab, Himachal agree to Anandpur Sahib-Naina Devi ropeway

The northern states of Punjab and Himachal Pradesh have signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) to set up a ropeway project between two religious sites- Anandpur Sahib and Naina Devi.

Govt constitutes High-Level Advisory Group for trade

Minister for Commerce and Industry, Suresh Prabhu, on Friday approved constitution of a High Level Advisory Group (HLAG) to make recommendations in identifying opportunities and addressing challenges in the contemporary global trade scenario. The HLAGwill be headed by Surjit S. Bhalla, Director of Oxus Research and Investments.

Argentina Gets Biggest Loan in IMF’s History At $57 billion

Argentina has received the biggest loan package ever from the International Monetary Fund, aimed at shoring up the country’s ailing finances a whopping $1bn that will be disbursed over the next three years.

Argentina Capital Buenos Aires
Currency Peso
PM Mauricio Macri

Andhra Pradesh bagged the first prize in state category for comprehensive development of tourism

Tourism Minister K J Alphons presented National Tourism Awards 2016-17in New Delhi. The awards were given in various segments of the Travel, Tourism and Hospitality Industry.Andhra Pradesh bagged the first prize in state category for comprehensive development of tourism.

Andhra Pradesh Capital Hyderabad, Amaravathi
CM Chandrababu Naidu
Governor ESL Narashiman

Odisha: Govt adopts ‘No Work No Pay’ policy in education department

Odishagovernment has decided to adopt the ‘No Work No Pay’ policy with regard to the strike by the block grant teachers and lecturers.

Orissa Capital Bhubaneswar
CM Naveen Patnaik
Governor Ganeshi Lal

RBI to ease SLR norms from October to induce liquidity

The Reserve Bank of India will ease the Statutory Liquidity Ratio (SLR) norms from October to induce liquidity into the financial system, amid concerns of a credit crunch. The increase in ‘Facility to Avail Liquidity for Liquidity Coverage Ratio’ (FALLCR), will effect from October 1, 2018, from the existing 11 percent to 13 percent will take the carve out from SLR available to banks to 15 percent of their NDTL (Net Demand and Time Liabilities)”.

ADB retains India growth forecast for FY18 at 7.3%

The ADB kept its growth forecasts unchanged at3% for 2018 and 7.6% for 2019 as the temporary effects of the demonetization of large bank notes and the introduction of GST abate as expected.

RBI cancels Bandhan Bank’s permission for new branches

Bandhan Bank on Friday informed stock exchanges that the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) had cancelled the permission given to it for opening new branches on account of its inability to bring down shareholding of non-operative financial holding company (NOFHC) to 40 per cent.

Mobiles To Drive $985 Bn Financial Services Sales In India By 2022

By influencing purchases of credit cards, insurance and loans, mobiles will create$985 billion sales opportunity for financial services brands in India by 2022, says a new Facebook-KPMG report titled “Eliminating friction in financial services path to purchase”.

Global IoT cellular connections to hit 5-bn mark by 2025: Report

Global Internet of Things (IoT) cellular connections will cross five billion mark by 2025 and China will continue to lead by contributing almost two-thirds of such connections.

Sanjay Kumar was given additional charge of the post of Director General of Fire Service, Civil Defence and Home Guards.

National Disaster Response Forcechief Sanjay Kumar was given additional charge of the post of Director General of Fire Service, Civil Defence and Home Guards.

Rajni Kant Misra Appointed BSF Chief

Senior IPS officers Rajni Kant Misra appointed as the chief of Border Security Force (BSF) and S S Deswal have been appointed as the Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB) respectively.

Government constitutes Lokpal search committee

The Modi government constituted an eight-member search committee, to be headed by former Supreme Court judge Justice Ranjana Prakash Desai, to recommend the chairperson and members of the anti-corruption ombudsman Lokpal.

PV Sindhu only sportsperson in Forbes India’s maiden list of 22 young achievers

Badminton player and Olympian PV Sindhu is the only sportsperson featuring in the Forbes India’s maiden ‘tycoons of tomorrow’ list of 22 young achievers in the fields of business, acting and sports.

India, United States form alliance in public and private sectors to combat menace of tuberculosis

The US and Indiahave formed an alliance comprising leading experts in public and private sectors to combat the menace of tuberculosis. US Agency for International Development (USAID) administrator Mark Green announced the formation of ‘USAID-India End TB Alliance’ at an event in New York in presence of Union Health Minister USAID is making an initial USD 30 million

NITI Aayog, UN in India sign Sustainable Development Framework

The NITI Aayogand the United Nationsin India on Friday signed the Sustainable Development Framework for 2018-2022. The agreement is a reflection of the commitment and efforts made by India towards attaining the Sustainable Development Goals.

7th National Conference on Excellence in Workplace Safety held in New Delhi

The 7th edition of FICCI Safety Systems Excellence Awardsfor Industry was launched in June 2018. The award ceremony & the conference are scheduled in September. The conference theme is “Excellence in Workplace Safety & Occupational Health”.

 IISc Bengaluru tops India in global list of best institutes

·         The Times Higher Education’s (THE) world university rankings 2019, released on Wednesday, show Oxford continues to hold the first place, Cambridge second, and Stanford third. No Indian institution figures in the top 250 of the Times Higher Education’s (THE) world university rankings 2019, though the Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru, has retained its position as the highest-ranked centre in the country, while the Indian Institute of Technology-Indore has risen to the highest position behind it.

8th Asian Yoga Sports Championship begins in Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala

Thiruvananthapuram is all set to play host to the 8th Asian Yoga Sports Championship, which will be held at the Jimmy George indoor stadium from September 27 to 30.

India to host first deaf ICC World T20 in November

Indiawill host the Deaf ICC T20 World Cup slated to begin from November 23-30 in Gurugram. The eight-day tournament will see participation from over 200 players across eight countries including England, Australia, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bangladesh, South Africa, apart from India.


Question of the day | Legal terms lists September 28,2018

Question of the day

Question: Indian Parliament is based on the principle of

(a) Bicameralism

(b) Universal Adult Franchise

(c) Dyarchy

(d) Federalism

Legal terms of the day

1. CORPUS DELICTI –The body, i.e. the body of crime.

2. DE JURE – BY LAW, RIGHT DE MINIMIS LEX NON CURAT -The law does not notice trifling matters.

3. DE NOVO –Starting afresh.

4. DOLI INCAPAX –Incapable of crime (minor)

5. EJUSDEM GENERIS –Of the same kind.


Today’s answer of the question – A


Ayodhya land dispute: SC declines to revisit its 1994 judgment and refer it to larger bench

The Supreme Court on September 27, 2018 declined to refer the 1994 Ismail Farooqui judgment that mosques are not integral to Islam to a larger constitution bench.

The judgement was delivered by a three-judge bench with 2: 1 majority. The majority judgement was written by Justice Ashok Bhushan on behalf of himself and Chief Justice Deepak Misra. The third judge, Justice Abdul Nazeer presented a dissenting judgment.

The decision to not refer the issue of reconsideration of the 1994 observations on the Ayodhya-Ram Janmabhoomi land dispute case to a five-judge constitution bench paves the way for the apex court to hear the main Ayodhya land dispute.

The Judgment: Key Highlights

• In the majority verdict, the apex court bench headed by Chief Justice Dipak Misra said that the present case on Ayodhya land dispute shall be decided on its own facts and the Ismail Farooqui judgment would have no impact on it.

• Justice Ashok Bhushan, who read out the majority judgement on behalf of himself and the CJI, said that the court has to find out the context in which the five-judge had delivered the 1994 judgement.

• He said that the statement in Faruqui case was in the limited context of immunity claimed by the petitioners for the mosque from acquisition and added that it need not be read broadly to mean mosque can never be essential to practise of Islam.

• Justice S Abdul Nazeer disagreed with the two judges and said whether mosque is integral to Islam has to be decided considering belief of religion and it requires detailed consideration.

• He referred to the recent Supreme Court order on female genital mutilation and said that the present matter should be heard by a larger bench.

• The civil suit on the land dispute will now be heard by a newly constituted three-judge bench on October 29 as Justice Misra is scheduled to retire as the CJI on October 2.


The issue whether mosque is integral to Islam had cropped up when the three-judge SC bench headed by CJI Misra was hearing a batch of petitions challenging the Allahabad High Court’s 2010 verdict by which the disputed land on the Ram Janmabhoomi-Babri Masjid area was to be divided in three parts.

The Allahabad high court, in a 2:1 majority ruling, had ordered that the 2.77 acres of land be divided equally among the three concerned parties -the Sunni Waqf Board, the Nirmohi Akhara and Ram Lalla represented by the Hindu Maha Sabha.

Ismail Farooqui judgement

In 1994, the Supreme Court had ruled that namaz or prayers could be offered anywhere and that a mosque was not necessary.

This cleared the way for the government to acquire the land where the 16th century Babri mosque was demolished by large crowd of Hindu Kar Sevaks. The site is considered by some of Hindus to be Ram Janmabhoomi, or the birthplace of Lord Ram and so they feel that a Ram temple should be built at the site.

  SC refuses to refer 1994 judgment on Ayodhya case to larger bench

According to various muslim organisations, the decades-old verdict played a big role in the disputed land in Ayodhya being divided in 2010 into three parts by the Allahabad High Court.

The organisations argue that the “sweeping” observation of the apex court in the 1994 verdict needed to be reconsidered by a five-judge bench as “it had and will have a bearing” on the Babri Masjid-Ram Temple land dispute case.

Second Anniversary of Surgical Strike to be commemorated as Parakram Parv on 29 September

The second anniversary of the surgical strike will be commemorated by the Indian Army as the Parakram Parv or the Surgical Strike Day during September 29 – 30, 2018 to showcase the gallant action of brave Army in the conduct of Surgical Strikes on September 29, 2016.

The Day will also be marked to remember the sacrifice of soldiers during the ‘Uri incident’.

Why Indian Army carried out Surgical strike?

Eleven days after the Uri attack that claimed 18 soldiers, Indian Army carried out a four hour Surgical Strike on the night of September 28-29, 2016 in Pakistan Occupied Kashmir, inflicting heavy casualties on terrorists along with ‘those protecting them”,  sending across a message of change of stand on the rules of engagement on the disputed Line of Control.

As per army, the strike was conducted to prevent terrorists who were prepping to infiltrate and attack the Kashmir region and metros. As per reports, first-of-its-kind strike across the Pakistani border was based on specific intelligence reports.

Events to take place during the commemoration

• Various events will be held at important military stations to commemorate the second anniversary of Surgical Strikes.

• An exhibition will be held to showcase the valour of armed forces; display of ships, submarines, aircraft, arms, equipment models; playing of video clippings on the surgical strike and naval videos and establishing of digital /selfie walls.

• In addition, ships will be open to visitors and even school and NCC children visits to ships, submarine, air stations are being planned.

• School children are also being encouraged to do letter writing and participate in card or poster making competitions in honour of valiant soldiers.

• A band display and bugle call is planned on September 29 to honour the fallen soldiers at the ballard pier memorial.

• The multifarious event is planned by the Navy to be held at Mumbai and Goa over a period of two days in the Western Naval Command.

• The venue for the exhibition of various stalls and video walls is at ballard pier/cruiser wharf in naval dockyard. The entry to cruiser wharf will be through tiger gate.

What is a Surgical Strike?
A surgical strike is a military attack which results in only damage to the intended legitimate military target, and no or minimal collateral damage to surrounding structures, vehicles, buildings, or the general public infrastructure and utilities.

A swift and targeted attack with the aim of minimum collateral damage to the nearby areas and civilians is a surgical strike.

Surgical strikes require not just detailed and exhaustive planning but also needs precision in execution undertaken by forces across the world.

Husband is not the master of wife, says SC while striking down 158-year-old adultery law

The Supreme Court of India on September 27, 2018 struck down a 158-year-old penal provision in the Indian Penal Code that made adultery a criminal offence.

The decision was taken by a five-judge bench comprising Chief Justice Dipak Misra and Justices R F Nariman, A M Khanwilkar, D Y Chandrachud and Indu Malhotra. The bench unanimously held Section 497 of the Indian Penal Code, which deals with the offence of adultery, as unconstitutional and arbitrary.

The Judgement: Key Highlights

• The top court said that Adultery can be a civil wrong and a ground for divorce but it cannot be a criminal offence.

• The court said Section 497 is violative of right to equality and right to equal opportunity to women and disallows them from making their own choices.

• The court pronounced four sets of concurring Judgements to declare as unconstitutional the penal provision on adultery and Section 198 of the Code of Criminal Procedure (CrPC) that deals with prosecution of offences against marriage.

Judgement of CJI Dipak Misra and Justice Khanwilkar

  Supreme Court strikes down 158-year-old IPC law on adultery

Chief Justice Dipak Misra wrote the Judgement for himself as well as on the behalf of Justice Khanwilkar.

The Chief Justice in his judgement held Section 497 IPC and Section 198 of the Code of Criminal Procedure dealing with the prosecution of offenses against marriage as unconstitutional.

He said that any provision treating women with inequality is not constitutional and it’s time to say that “husband is not the master of a woman”. He also stated that legal sovereignty of one sex over other sex is wrong.

He said that adultery dents the individuality of women and it is not a crime in countries like China, Japan and Australia.

He said that adultery might not be the cause of an unhappy marriage, it could be the result of an unhappy marriage.

He said equality is the governing parameter of the Constitution and Section 497 of the IPC is manifestly arbitrary in the way it deals with women.

However, the CJI and Justice Khanwilkar said that while adultery cannot be a crime, if someone commits suicide because of his or her partner’s adulterous relation and evidence is produced, it could be treated as an abetment to suicide under Section 306 of the IPC.

Judgement of Justice Indu Malhotra

Justice Malhotra, who was the only woman judge on the bench, said Section 497 is a clear violation of fundamental rights granted in the Constitution and there is no justification for the continuation of the provision.

Judgement of RF Nariman

Justice Nariman termed Section 497 an archaic provision which had lost its rationale and concurred with the CJI and Justice Khanwilkar, saying that the penal provision is violative of the rights to equality and equal opportunity to women.

He said that the ancient notion of man being the perpetrator and the woman being a victim of adultery no longer holds good and added that the section treats women as chattel and has chauvinistic undertones.

Judgement of Justice D Y Chandrachud

Justice Chandrachud in his separate but concurring opinion said Section 497 destroys and deprives women of their dignity and offends their sexual freedom.

He said autonomy is intrinsic in dignified human existence and Section 497 denudes women from making choices.

He also added that the law in adultery is a codified rule of patriarchy and respect for sexual autonomy must be emphasised.

He concluded his Judgement by saying that marriage does not preserve ceiling of autonomy and the IPC section perpetrates the subordinate nature of woman in a marriage.

Overall, the five-judge bench held that adultery can be treated as civil wrong for dissolution of marriage but also as a criminal offense.

About Section 497 of IPC

The section says that “Whoever has sexual intercourse with a person who is and whom he knows or has reason to believe to be the wife of another man, without the consent or connivance of that man, such sexual intercourse not amounting to the offense of rape, is guilty of the offense of adultery.”

However, the section exempts from criminal prosecution a man who has engaged in sexual intercourse with a married woman if the same transpires with the consent or connivance of the said married woman’s husband.

The offense of adultery entailed a maximum punishment of five years or fine or both.

Section 198(2) of the Code of Criminal Procedure

The section allows the initiation of criminal proceedings for Adultery only at the instance of the husband of the adulteress, but the wife of the man party to the act of adultery cannot institute a complaint.

India And Morocco Signed MoU to Enhance Cooperation In MSME Sector

i. India and Morocco signed an MoU for deepening cooperation between MSME sectors of the two countries in Rabat, Morocco.

ii. Ms. Alka Arora, Joint Secretary in the Ministry of MSME, held bilateral meetings with Mr. Othman El Ferdaous, Secretary of State in the Ministry of Industry, Investment and Trade and Digital Economy and with other related Departments for enhancing cooperation in MSME Sector.

Useful Info-

  • Morocco Currency– Moroccan dirham
  • Capital– Rabat
  • PM-Abdelilah Benkirane

India and Oman Agree to Enhance Bilateral Cooperation

i. Sayyid Badr Saud Harib Al Busaidi, the Minister Responsible for Defence Affairs, Sultanate of Oman, is on an official visit to India at the invitation of Raksha Mantri Smt Nirmala Sitharaman. The Omani Minister met with Raksha Mantri in South Block.

ii. The three wings of the Armed Forces hold staff talks and advanced joint exercises with each other. Several enabling agreements and Memoranda of Understanding have been signed between the two countries pertaining to defense related issues.

Useful Info-

  • Oman Capital- Muscat
  • Currency– Omani rial

IAF Successfully Test Fires Air-To-Air Astra Missile

i. The Indian Air Force successfully test fired the indigenously developed Beyond Visual Range Air-to-Air Missile Astra from a Su-30 aircraft. The missile, tested at the Kalaikunda Air Force Station, “successfully engaged a maneuvering target with high precision.”

ii. In the series of trials held till date, Astra has been launched in the complete Su-30 flight envelope. The flight test assumes significance as it was part of the series of final pre-induction trials.

Useful Info-

  • Current Air Chief Marshal- Birender Singh Dhanoa

Argentina Gets Biggest Loan in IMF’s History At $57 billion 

i. Argentina has received $57.1 billion from the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the biggest loan package ever from the global body aimed at boosting the country’s struggling economy.

ii. The loan, $15 billion of which has already been received by Argentina, will be disbursed over the next three years. Argentina had originally secured a $50-billion loan in June this year.

Useful Info-

  • Managing Director of IMF- Christine Lagarde,
  • Headquarters in- Washington DC, USA.

World Tourism Day: 27 September 

i. World Tourism Day is observed every year globally on 27th September. It is a unique opportunity to raise awareness on the potential contribution of digital technologies to sustainable tourism development.

ii. “Tourism and the Digital Transformation” is the theme of this year’s World Tourism Day (WTD). Hungary is the host country for this year’s WTD.

PM Modi Got UN’s Highest Environmental Honour

i. Prime Minister Narendra Modi has been awarded with the UN’s highest environmental honor, also given to five other individuals and organizations, for his leadership of the International Solar Alliance and pledge to eliminate single-use plastic by 2022Cochin International Airport was given the award for its leadership in the use of sustainable energy.

ii. Six of the world’s most outstanding environmental changemakers have been recognized with the Champions of the Earth AwardFrench President Emmanuel Macron and Mr. Modi have been jointly recognized in the Policy Leadership category for their pioneering work in championing the International Solar Alliance.

Useful Info- 

  • International Solar Alliance Headquarters– Gurugram, India.
  • ISA Founded in– Paris, November 2015.

IISc Bengaluru Tops India in Global List Of Best Institutes 

i. No Indian institution figures in the top 250 of the Times Higher Education’s (THE) world university rankings 2019, though the Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru, has retained its position as the highest-ranked center in the country, while the Indian Institute of Technology-Indore has risen to the highest position behind it.

ii. The rankings show Oxford continues to hold the first place, Cambridge second, and Stanford third. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology rose one place to number four. In India, number of Indian institutions in the rankings increased from 42 last year to 49, making it the fifth best-represented nation.

RBI Eases Cash Reserve Rules To Ease Liquidity 

i. The Reserve Bank of India allowed banks to dip further into statutory cash reserves in a bid to ease a liquidity squeeze afflicting the nation’s money markets. The move by the central bank follows concerns over tight liquidity conditions and banks’ unwillingness to lend to NBFCs.

ii. As per the RBI, banks could ‘carve out’ up to 15% of holdings under the statutory liquidity reserves to meet their liquidity coverage ratio (LCR) requirements as compared to 13% now.

Useful Info-

  • Urjit Patel- 24th Governor of RBI
  • Headquarters- Mumbai
  • Established on- 1st April 1935, in Kolkata

Question of the day | Legal terms lists September 27, 2018

Question of the day

Question: Joint heirs to a property are called

(a) Co-heirs

(b) Coparceners

(c) Successors

(d) Joint owners

Legal terms of the day

1. ANIMO TESTANDI –With an intention of making a will.

2. CAVEAT VENDITOR –Let the seller beware.

3. CONSENSUS AD IDEM –Agreement as to the same things.

4. CONTEMPORANEA EXPOSITIO EST OPTIMA ET FORTISSIMA IN LEGE –A contemporaneous(present) exposition is best and most powerful in law.

 5. CONTRA –To the contrary.


Today’s answer of the question: B


India, Morocco sign MoU to enhance cooperation in MSME Sector

The MoU was signed during the bilateral meeting between India and Morocco. Alka Arora, Joint Secretary in the Ministry of MSME, led the official delegation along with CMD NSIC to Morocco and held bilateral meetings with Othman El Ferdaous, Secretary of State in the Ministry of Industry, Investment and Trade and Digital Economy of Morocco.

PM Modi, Cochin International Airport honoured with UN Champions of the Earth Award 2018

Prime Minister Narendra Modi was on September 26, 2018 awarded with the prestigious UN Champions of the Earth Award 2018, the highest environmental honour of the United Nations. 

The UN Environment jointly awarded PM Narendra Modi and French President Emmanuel Macron in the Policy Leadership category for their efforts regarding the creation of the International Solar Alliance. 

PM Modi was also acknowledged for his unprecedented pledge to eliminate all single use plastic in India by 2022.

Other awardees

This year, the Champions of the Earth Award recognised six of the world’s most outstanding environmental changemakers for their combination of bold, innovative, and tireless efforts to tackle some of the most urgent environmental issues.

The other winners of the 2018 Champions of the Earth Awards are:

Awardees Recognition
Cochin International Airport, Kerala The Cochin International Airport was awarded for Entrepreneurial Vision, for its leadership in the use of sustainable energy. This world’s first fully solar-powered airport proves that green business is good business.
Joan Carling, an activist from the Cordillera, Philippines She was recognised with the Lifetime Achievement Award for her work as one of the world’s most prominent defenders of environmental and indigenous rights. Carling has been at the forefront of the conflict for land and the environment for more than 20 years.
Beyond Meat and Impossible Foods These Plant-based food alternative providers were jointly recognised in the Science and Innovation Category for their revolutionary development of a popular, plant-based alternative to beef, and for their efforts to educate consumers about environmentally conscious alternatives.
China’s Zhejiang’s Green Rural Revival Programme The programme was awarded for Inspiration and Action for the transformation of a once heavily polluted area of rivers and streams in East China’s Zhejiang province.

The Awards will be presented to them during the Champions of the Earth Gala in New York City, on the sidelines of the 73rd UN General Assembly. The gala will be hosted by actor and environmental activist Alec Baldwin and UN Environment Goodwill Ambassador Dia Mirza. 

Champions of the Earth Award 

• The Champions of the Earth award, the UN’s highest environmental recognition, was founded in 2005.

• The award celebrates exceptional figures from the public and private sectors and from civil society, whose actions have had a transformative positive impact on the environment. 

• The award also recognises the efforts for promoting new areas of levels of cooperation on environmental action.

• The past laureates include – Afroz Shah, who led the world’s largest beach cleanup (2016), Rwandan President Paul Kagame (2016), former US Vice-President Al Gore (2007), Ocean Cleanup CEO Boyan Slat (2014), scientist-explorer Bertrand Piccard, and developer of Google Earth Brian McClendon (2013).

President clears ordinance to set up a board of eminent personalities to run MCI

President Ram Nath Kovind on September 26, 2018 gave his assent to promulgate an ordinance that seeks to establish a committee to run the Medical Council of India, until Parliament passes legislation to replace the body with a new commission.

The presidential assent came after the Union Cabinet cleared the ordinance on the same day. The information was shared by Union Finance Minister Arun Jaitley after the cabinet meeting in New Delhi.

Jaitley said that since the term of the elected body of the Medical Commission of India is slated to end soon, a need was felt to appoint a committee comprising professionals of great eminence to run its affairs.  Hence, the ordinance supersedes the MCI and the powers of the council have been vested in a Board of Governors (BoG).

Composition of the Board

The Board of Governors who would run the MCI will include Niti Aayog member VK Paul, AIIMS Director Randeep Guleria, PGIMER’s Director Jagat Ram, BM Gangadhar of NIMHANS Bengaluru and AIIMS Professor Nikhil Tandon. and doctors S Venkatesh and Balram Bhargava.

The Director General health services S Venkatesh and Director General ICMR Balram Bhargava will be the ex-officio members of the board.

Key Highlights

• A bill to replace the Council with a National Medical Commission is pending in Parliament. The National Medical Commission is expected to replace the Medical Council of India as the top medical education regulator in the country.

• In March 2018, the Union Cabinet had made amendments to the National Medical Commission Bill after considering recommendations made by a Parliamentary Standing Committee on Health and Family Welfare.

• The bill proposes setting up of four autonomous boards to oversee undergraduate and post-graduate courses, assess and accredit medical institutes and register practitioners under the National Medical Commission.

• The bill also proposes a common entrance exam and licentiate exams that all medical graduates will have to clear to get practicing licences.

• The bill was sent to the Parliamentary Standing Committee following protests by the medical fraternity across the country on the grounds that it would lead to more corruption in the medical field.

The Background

The Supreme Court of India had in May 2016 directed the centre to set up an oversight committee with the authority to oversee all statutory functions of MCI till the new legislation comes in, following allegations of corruption against MCI office bearers and probes into opaque accreditation to medical colleges.

Several MCI members have been accused of taking bribes to fast-track accreditation.

In 2017, another oversight committee was set up with the approval of the top court after expiry of the one year term of the first panel.

In July 2018, the committee resigned citing instances of ‘non-compliance of their instructions by MCI’.

Union Cabinet approves National Digital Communications Policy 2018

The Union Cabinet, chaired by Prime Minister Narendra Modi, on September 26, 2018 approved the National Digital Communications Policy 2018 (NDCP-2018), the new telecom policy of the country.

The cabinet also accorded approval to the re-designation of the Telecom Commission as the “Digital Communications Commission”.

National Digital Communications Policy 2018 (NDCP-2018)
The NDCP-2018 envisions supporting India’s transition to a digitally empowered economy and society by fulfilling the information and communications needs of citizens and enterprises by establishing a resilient and affordable digital communications infrastructure and services.

This customer focused and application driven policy will lead to new ideas and innovations after the launch of advanced technology such as 5G, IOT, and M2M which will govern the telecom sector.

Objectives of the policy

Provide universal broadband connectivity at 50 Mbps to every citizen

Provide 1 Gbps connectivity to all Gram Panchayats by 2020 and 10 Gbps by 2022

Ensure connectivity to all uncovered areas

Attract investments of USD 100 billion in the Digital Communications Sector

Train 1 million manpower for building New Age Skill

Expand IoT ecosystem to 5 billion connected devices

Establish a comprehensive data protection regime for digital communications that safeguards the privacy, autonomy and choice of individuals

Facilitate India’s effective participation in the global digital economy

Enforce accountability through appropriate institutional mechanisms

Secure digital communications infrastructure and services


Establishment of a National Digital Grid by creating a National Fibre Authority

Establishing Common Service Ducts and utility corridors in all new city and highway road projects

Creation of a collaborative institutional mechanism between Centre, States and Local Bodies for common rights of way, standardisation of costs and timelines

Removal of barriers to approvals

Facilitating development of Open Access Next Generation Networks

The end product

The National Digital Communications Policy will at end result in:

Broadband for all

Creation of four million additional jobs in the Digital Communications sector

Enhance the contribution of the Digital Communications sector to 8 percent of India’s GDP from around 6 percent in 2017

Propel India to the Top 50 Nations in the ICT Development Index of ITU from 134 in 2017

Enhance India’s contribution to Global Value Chains

Ensure Digital Sovereignty

The government targets to achieve these objectives by 2022.

What led to the formation of the new telecom policy?

• At present, the world is witnessing an era of modern technological advancements in the Telecom Sector such as 5G, Internet of Things (loT), Machine to machine (M2M) communication, etc.

• Considering this transformation, the government felt a need to introduce a policy for the Indian Telecom Sector which can form the main pillar of Digital India by addressing emerging opportunities.

• Accordingly, the National Digital Communications Policy 2018 was formulated in place of the existing National Telecom Policy 2012.

Ibrahim Mohamed Solih wins Maldives Presidential Election 2018: In Detail

Opposition candidate, Ibrahim Mohamed Solih, on September 24, 2018 won the Maldives Presidential Election 2018, defeating incumbent President Yameen Abdul Gayoom, who will stay on in the presidency until his term ends on November 17, 2018.

Ibrahim Mohammad Solih is a consensus candidate of the joint opposition, which includes the Maldivian Democratic Party, the Jumhooree Party, the Adhaalat Party and former president Maumoon Abdul Gayoom’s own faction of the Progressive Party. 

As per the results announced by Maldives’ National Elections Commission, Solih fetched 58.3 percent of the votes or 134616 ballots, compared to 41.5 percent or 96142 votes secured by Abdul Gayoom of Progressive Party of Maldives.

Solih will be sworn in as President on November 17, 2018 and his term is expected to continue until 2023. Solih will be only the sixth President in the country’s five-decade old electoral history.

Crisis in Maldives 

• In October 2008, a popular opposition movement instigated by a coalition of parties challenged the power of incumbent leader Maumoon Abdul Gayoom (half-brother of Yameen Abdul Gayoom), forcing him to hold the Maldives’ first multiparty presidential vote.

• In the country’s first free elections, Mohamed Nasheed, backed by a coalition of opposition parties, defeated Gayoom in a runoff and became the Maldives’ first freely elected president in 2008. Two years later, the international watchdog Freedom House listed the country as an electoral democracy for the first time.

• However, in 2012, Nasheed was forced to resign from the office following a police mutiny and a political turmoil in the country better known for its exotic honeymoon resorts.

• It was Yameen Abdul Gayoom’s election as President in 2013 that ended the political turmoil. However, this trouble only intensified under Yameen.

• Recently in February 2018, Yameen declared a 45-day state of emergency in the country, ordering security forces into the Supreme Court and got former president Maumoon Abdul Gayoom arrested. On his orders, Maldives police arrested Chief Justice Abdulla Saeed and another Supreme Court judge Ali Hameed.

• He had pulled Maldives out of the Commonwealth in 2016 and fostered closer ties with China and Saudi Arabia over traditional allies India and the United Kingdom.

Maldives and its relations with China and India
Maldives, an island country, has been caught in a geopolitical struggle between China, India and the West. As soon as the results were declared, messages of congratulations from major countries including the United States and India among others began to pour in; however, China has not yet reacted to the outcome of the election.
China’s strong influence on Maldives
China and the Maldives have been enjoying friendly relations for many years now. China has spent hundreds of millions of dollars on infrastructure projects in the Maldives.

In September 2014, China’s president Xi Jinping visited the Maldives and a deal was finalised with a Chinese firm to upgrade its international airport, which is located on Hulhule, a separate island near the capital Male.

Only two months after Xi’s visit, Maldives signed a Memorandum of Understanding with Beijing in support of Xi’s ambitious Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) in December 2014.

China also undertook to build a 1.4-kilometer bridge linking Hulhule with Male which was completed on August 30, 2018.

India and Maldives
Maldives, home to around 22000 Indians, is of strategic importance to India and its growing proximity with China is a cause of concern for New Delhi.

Under the rule of Mohamed Nasheed, Maldives fostered close relations with India. However, India was effectively sidelined under the rule of Yameen Abdul Gayoom. All these years India had been feeling the heat.

Even when Yameen toppled the judicial system by jailing Supreme Court judges and his half-brother and former president Maumoon Abdul Gayoom in February 2018, India played a waiting game. At times, India seemed almost ineffectual or helpless. Yameen even demanded to cut visas for Indian workers.

What does Solih’s election imply for India?

Ibrahim Mohamed Solih is related to Mohamed Nasheed through his wife, who is the first cousin of Nasheed. Solih and Nasheed are considered as brothers in terms of Maldivian politics. As Nasheed, Solih seems to be pro-Indian unlike Yameen Abdul Gayoom, under whose reign, China outpaced India.

Even during his door-to-door campaign, Solih promised that he would repair relations with the neighbours and India First foreign policy would be reinstated.

Who is Ibrahim Mohamed Solih?

• Ibrahim Mohamed Solih is popularly known as Ibu Solih.

• Born in 1964 in Hinnavaru, Lhaviyani Atoll, Solih is a democracy activist well known for his reform efforts.

• Solih is one of the founding members of the Maldivian Democratic Party (MDP), a party started by journalist-turned-leader Nasheed who went on to become the President of the Maldives after winning the 2008 election. 

• He was first elected to the Parliament in 1994 at the age of 30.

• He became the leader of MDP’s Parliamentary Group in 2011, after the infamous coup that led to the removal of Nasheed.

• For most of his political career as a lawmaker since 1994, he has maintained a low-profile until he began campaigning in the run-up to Presidential elections recently. 

• Representing Lhaviyani Atoll in the Maldivian Parliament, Solih became MDP’s presidential candidate after its other top figures were jailed or exiled by Yameen’s government.

Vice president M. Venkaiah Naidu inaugurated Smart City Expo India-2018

i. Vice president M. Venkaiah Naidu inaugurated Smart City Expo India-2018 in Jaipur.  He stressed the need for water harvesting. According to the Vice President, Smart Vision, Smart execution and smart Implementation are essential to develop smart cities and no city can become smart without the participation of the public. 

ii. The object of this three days long expo is to have discussions among different experts and groups to utilize benefits of new technology, town planning, capacity management, challenges before socio-economic development and development of networking in the Smart City sector. Near about 6000 delegates from MNC’s of different countries, researchers, CEO’s of different Smart cities, Mayors and corporates are participating in the expo. 

Cabinet approves National Digital Communications Policy

i. The cabinet has approved the new telecom policy, now named National Digital Communications Policy (NDCP) 2018, which aims to attract USD 100 billion investment and create 4 million jobs in the sector by 2022.  According to the draft of the policy, NDCP is focused on increasing high-speed broadband penetration, with use of modern technologies like 5G and optical fibres across the country at affordable rates.

ii. The draft promised to rationalise levies such as spectrum charges to rejuvenate debt-ridden telecom sector, the proposed new telecom policy seeks to provide broadband access to all with 50 megabit per second speed, 5G services and create 40 lakh new jobs by 2022.

Aadhaar Linking Must For PAN and Filing Income Tax Returns

i. The Supreme Court declared the Centre’s flagship Aadhaar scheme as Constitutionally valid. The Supreme Court ruled that linking the Aadhaar card to PAN card is mandatory and is needed for filing income tax returns. The apex court, however, said Aadhaar is not mandatory for opening bank accounts and linking with existing accounts. 

ii. The Supreme Court also struck down Section 57 of the Aadhaar Act that allowed private companies to avail Aadhaar data. Calling the section unconstitutional, the court asserted that private companies cannot insist on having Aadhaar number of customers. Aadhaar authentication records cannot be stored beyond six months, striking down the current rule of five years.

Useful Info-

Chairman, UIDAI- J. Satyanarayana 

CEO, UIDAI- Dr. Ajay Bhushan Pandey 

Supreme Court Allows Live Streaming Of Cases of Constitutional importance

i. The Supreme Court agreed to live-streaming and video recording of court proceedings, saying “sunlight is the best disinfectant”. The Supreme Court allowed live streaming of cases of Constitutional importance that take place in the Court of the Chief Justice of India.

ii. The bench said that they want to implement the concept of ‘open court’ in a bid to decongest the court. As per the court the public had a “right to know” what happens inside the courtroom. The decision came on the back of a clutch of petitions filed by senior lawyer Indira Jaisingh, law student Snehil Tripathi and NGO Centre For Accountability and Systemic Change. 

UN Declared Nelson Mandela Decade Of Peace 2019-2028

i. Unanimously adopting a political declaration at the Nelson Mandela Peace Summit, nearly 100 Heads of State and Government, Ministers, Member States and representatives of civil society  committed to redoubling efforts to build a just, peaceful, prosperous, inclusive and fair world, as they paid tribute to the late South African President’s (1994-99) celebrated qualities and service to humanity.

ii. Recognizing the period from 2019 to 2028 as the Nelson Mandela Decade of Peace, the Declaration saluted Mr Mandela for his humility, forgiveness and compassion, acknowledging as well his contribution to the struggle for democracy and the promotion of a culture of peace throughout the world.

Useful Info- 

Nelson Mandela International Day- July 18

UN Headquarters- New York, US

Finance Ministry Launched Mobile App  “Jan Dhan Darshak”

i. Department of Financial Services (DFS), Ministry of Finance and National Informatics Centre  (NIC) have jointly developed a mobile app called Jan Dhan Darshak as a part of financial inclusion (FI) initiative. This app will act as a guide for the common people in locating a financial service touch point at a given location in the country.

ii. While over 5 lakh FI touch points (Bank branches, ATMs, Post Offices) have been mapped on this App, approx. 1.35 lakh Bank Mitras would be on-boarded by 01.12.2018. Phone number of bank branches are available in the app, with the facility of call button for integrated dialing. 

Useful Info-

The NIC was established in 1976.

Present Director General of NIC- Neeta Verma

Japan Landed Rovers On Asteroid In Historic Mission

i. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) landed a pair of rovers on an asteroid, marking the world’s first moving, robotic observation of an asteroid surface. The two rovers Hayabusa2 managed to land on the asteroid are expected to take advantage of the low gravity and jump around the surface, reaching heights of up to 15 meters. 

ii. The small compact MINERVA-II1(MIcro Nano Experimental Robot Vehicle for Asteroid, the second generation) rovers separated from the Hayabusa2 spacecraft. The MINERVA-II 1 consists of two rovers, Rover-1A and Rover-1B. The Hayabusa2 probe was launched in December 2014 to explore the surface of the asteroid known as Ryugu. If all goes well, the Hayabusa2 will return to earth with soil and rock samples in 2020, 

DAC approves procurement of one thousand engines for T-72 tanks

i. The Defence Acquisition Council (DAC) has approved procurement of 1,000 engines for fitment in T-72 tanks of the Army at an approximate cost of over 2,300 crore rupees. According to the Defence Ministry, the engines will enhance mobility, agility and acceleration of T-72 tanks making them more versatile and effective in the battlefield.

ii. Post-transfer of technology, most of these engines will be manufactured by Ordnance Factories Board. The DAC has also approved several amendments to Defence Procurement Procedure 2016, the manual governing the defence procurements.

Useful Info-

DAC was set up in 2001.

DAC Chairperson- Union Defence Minister (Current Chairperson- Mrs. Nirmala Sitharaman)

Finland Topped In ‘Human Capital’ Score, India Ranked 158th 

i. India ranks 158th in the world for its investments in education and healthcare, according to the first-ever scientific study ranking countries for their levels of human capital. The nation is placed behind Sudan (ranked 157th) and ahead of Namibia (ranked 159th) in the list. 

ii. The study, published in journal The Lancet, says that India is ranked at 158 out of 195 countries, an improvement from its position of 162 in 1990. The U.S. is ranked 27th, while China is at 44th and Pakistan at 164th.

Useful Info-

Finland topped the list, followed by Iceland and Denmark.

Mukesh Ambani Toped Barclays Hurun Rich List For 7th Time In A Row

i. Billionaire Mukesh Ambani, chairman of India’s second-most valued firm ‘Reliance Industries’, has topped the ‘Barclays Hurun India Rich List 2018’ for the seventh consecutive year, with the total net worth of INR 371,000 crore. Barclays Hurun India Rich List 2018, a compilation of the individuals in India having a net worth of INR 1,000 crore or more, featured 831 Indians compared to 617 last year.

ii. Mr Ambani is followed by London-based S.P. Hinduja, with the net worth of INR 1,59,000 crore; and L.N. Mittal, with a net worth of INR 1,14,500 crore. Azim Premji, with the wealth of INR 96,100 crore, is fourth in the list. The cumulative wealth of the 831 individuals featured in the list stood at $719 billion, amounting to a quarter of India’s GDP of $2,848 billion.


Legal Reasoning Quiz for Workshop

Answer 10 Simple Legal Reasoning Questions and enroll yourself for 2 Days Legal Terms & Maxims workshop

Contact No.

Principle: Frustration of contract means happening of an event by which the contract becomes impossible of performance. Such a contract becomes void upon the happening of an impossible event.

Facts: A contracts to take in cargo for B at a foreign port. A's Government afterwards declares war against B's country. Does the contract become void on declaration of war?


Principle: An injury caused by an activity within the statutory authority of an agency cannot give rise to a tort claim.

Facts: The road between Park Circus and Park Street in Kolkata has developed a series of potholes and around half a day's work is required to repair it. The Municipal Corporation of Kolkata blocks off the road and repairs it from 8 am to 6 pm. As a result of the blockage, several people are late for work. Some of them particularly suffer tremendous loss as they are late for an important meeting. They bring a suit for nuisance against the MCK. Will they succeed?


Principle: Any act done in good faith without the consent of another person and for his benefit is not an offence. He must not intend to commit an offence.

Facts: Z is thrown from his horse and is unconscious. A, a surgeon finds that Z needs to be operated upon  immediately. A, not intending to cause Z's death performs the surgery as a result of which Z dies. Is A guilty of any offence?



(i) No fault liability means liability of a person even without any negligent act on his part and even if he has taken due care and caution.

(ii) If a person brings and keeps any dangerous thing on his land, then he is liable for any damage caused if the thing escapes.

Facts : A branch of tree growing on A's land overhanging on the highway suddenly fell on B's vehicle passing along the highway. A was careful with pruning the branches as and when it was required. B sued A for damages. Is B liable?


‘Delegatus non potest delegare’ means


Under the Eighth Schedule, how many languages are mentioned?



(i) A contract is made by undue influence when one party to the contract is in a position to dominate the other's other will and causes the other party to enter into the contract.

(ii) A contract induced by undue influence is voidable by the party subjected to undue Influence.

Facts: A man weakened by age and disease agrees to pay his medical attendant an unreasonable sum for his services, as a result of his influence over the old man. Can the old man avoid the contract?


According to the Constitution, under Article 18(1), no title shall be conferred by the State except:


Ceteris Paribus means :


Principle: Even if the sovereign functions of the State are discharged negligently, the State is not vicariously liable in tort.

Facts: A was a trader in gold. He was arrested by police and several articles, including gold were seized by the police and kept in the malkhana. Later he was discharged and his things were returned to him except gold which was stolen from the malkhana .  Is the State liable?

Question of the day | Legal terms lists September 26, 2018

Question of the day

Question: What does the legal term Caveat Emptor refer to?

(a)Let the buyer beware

(b) According to value

(c) An unwelcome person

(d) Beyond the powers

Legal terms of the day

1. Quo warranto – By what authority. A writ calling upon one to show under what authority he holds or claims a public office.

2. Ratio decidendi – Principle or reason underlying a court judgement.

3. Res ipsa loquitor – The thing speaks for itself.

4. Caveat venditor -Let the seller beware.

5. Certiorari – A writ by which orders passed by an inferior court is quashed.


Today’s answer of the question: A


Navy Officer Tommy rescued after three day search

Malayalam sailor Abhilash Tommy, who was the first Indian to circumnavigate the world solo, was injured during the ongoing Golden Globe racein South Indian Ocean during a storm that also demasted his vessel. Tommy’s Twitter handle informed that he was safe inside the boat.

Gadkari dedicates to nation upgraded NH-44 in Meghalaya

Union Minister Nitin Gadkari renovated and upgraded National Highway-44, which would boost industrial development in Meghalaya. The Minister for Road Transport and Highways will also review problems and issues faced in the execution of National Highway projects in the north-east here, over the next two days. “The NH-44 (Jowai to Ratacherra at the Assam border) is important for development of industries in Meghalaya

Maldives President Abdulla Yameen concedes defeat in election

Much to the surprise of his critics and political rivals, Maldives President Abdulla Yameen on Monday conceded defeat in Sunday’s presidential election, making way for the joint Opposition candidate Ibrahim Mohamed Solih.

Maldives Capital Malé
Currency Rufiyaa
President Abdulla Yameen

UP scored 1st place in Implementation of Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana

Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Yogi Adityanath announced that the state has scored the first position in implementation of Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (PMAY) by providing houses to 11 lakh poor families.

Uttar Pradesh Capital Lucknow
CM Yogi Adithiyanath
Governor Ram Naik

Mysuru city police is to launch Mysuraksha app

The Mysuru city police are to launch Mysuraksha app soon. The aim is to ensure the safety and security of passengers who use auto and cab. While downloading the app on their smartphones, the passengers can scan the Quick Response (QR) code printed on autos and cabs that will have the details of the vehicle and the driver.

Karnataka Capital Bangalore
CM Kumarasamy
Governor Vajubai Rudubai Wala

RBI shortlisted 5 IT firms for implementation of Centralised information and Management System (CIMS)

RBI shortlisted 5 IT firms for implementation of Centralised information and Management System (CIMS)

Reserve Bank shortlisted five IT firms for implementation of a centralised information and management system (CIMS) for data collection. The 5 IT firms are Infosys, TCS, Capgemini, IBM, Larsen  & Turbo Infotech.

Corporation Bank has signed an information utility (IU) agreement with National e-Governance Services Ltd (NeSL)

Corporation Bank has signed an information utility (IU) agreement with National e-Governance Services Ltd (NeSL), the first IU registered with the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (IBBI), to share financial and security information under IBBI (IU) Regulation 2017. They serve the needs of the banking system by providing data to insolvency professionals, adjudicating authority and the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India on the proof of borrowing, proof of default and security interest data in respect of NCLT cases while adhering to prescribed standards of information security.

BSNL signed MOU with Softbank, NTT to roll out 5G, IoT service

·         BSNL has inked a pact with Japan’s Softbank and NTT Communications to roll out 5G and internet of things technology in India.

Facebook to have new head in India

Facebook has appointed Ajit Mohan as managing director and vice-president of the social networking site’s India operations. Mr. Mohan, who was previously the CEO of video streaming platform Hotstar, will join Facebook early next year. The post was lying vacant since the exit of Umang Bedi last year.

Scientist Dr VR Lalithambika is heading India’s First Human Space Mission

The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has chosen veteran scientist Dr VR Lalithambika to head its Gaganyaan mission to put an Indian in space by 2022. The 56-year-old scientist has 30 years of experience in space missions with ISRO.

3 Saudi human rights activists awarded “Alternative Nobel”

The Right Livelihood Award — known as the “Alternative Nobel” — has been given to three jailed Saudi human rights defenders and two Latin American anti-corruption crusaders.

1 Abdullah al-Hamid
2 Mohammad Fahad al-Qahtani
3 Waleed Abu al-Khair
4 Thelma Aldana of Guatemala
5 Ivan Velasquez

Asian News International, ANI and Emirates News Agency signed an MoU, for bilateral cooperation in the area of the free news exchange in Abu Dhabi

Asian News International, ANI and Emirates News Agency, WAM, the official news agency of the UAE government has signed an MoU, for bilateral cooperation in the area of the free news exchange in Abu Dhabi. The Mou wa signed between: Mohammad Jalal Alrayssi, Executive Director of WAM and Sanjiv Prakash, Chief Editor and CEO of ANI

AP, Odisha & Madhya Pradesh Best Performing States in “Ease of Living Index” Under Amrut

·         The “Ease of Living Index” rankings were launched by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA) under Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT) at the National Dissemination Workshop on Ease of Living Index, 2018 in New Delhi. Andhra Pradesh has topped the charts followed by Odisha and Madhya Pradesh.

NASA’s satellite TESS that has discovered two new Earth-like planets named super-Earth and hot Earth.

·         NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration)’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) has discovered two new earth-like exoplanets namely: “super-Earth” and “hot Earth”. TESS was launched in April 2018 to detect exoplanets (planets outside the sun’s solar system). It is a one year mission worth $337 million. This is TESS’s first discovery. Super-Earth: It is named as Pi Mensae c. It is 60 light-years away. It orbits its sun every 6.3 days. Hot-Earth: It is named as LHS 3844 b. It is 49 light-years away. It orbits its sun every 11 hours. Both the planets are too hot to support life.

MS Dhoni overtakes Dravid to become India’s 2nd most capped cricketer

Mahendra Singh become the second most capped player for India in international cricket as he played his 505th match for India in the Super Four of Asia Cup 2018 against Pakistan on September 23. Before Dhoni, Rahul Dravid was the second most capped player for India with 504 caps in international cricket. Sachin Tendulkar is the topmost capped player for India with a record 664 matches for India.

Pavithra Naveen won Pan Tech-Abu Dhabi 83rd State senior championships at the EISA Badminton Academy

Pavithra Naveen claimed the Pan Tech-Abu Dhabi 83rd State senior championships at the EISA Badminton Academy, at Ettumanoor, Kerala. The unseeded Pavithra defeated Kozhikode’s fifth-seeded N.Aswathy 16-21, 21-16, 21-16 in the women’s final. In men’s final Kozhikode’s unseeded Mohammed Munawar won the title by defeating Ernakulam’s top-seeded M. Shyam Prasad. He defeated Prasad by securing 21-16, 21-16. It is Munawar’s fourth State men’s trophy.


CLAT 2019: Application Form, Exam Dates, Eligibility, Syllabus

CLAT 2019 Exam Dates

In this section, we are providing a tentative schedule of CLAT 2019 EXAM DATE. Whenever the official CLAT exam 2019 dates announced we will update it here:

Events Dates (Tentative)
Admission Notification Release 3rd week of December 2018
Application Form Availability 1st January 2019
Last date for form submission 31st March 2019 (11:59 PM)
Downloading of Admit Card Starts 3rd week of April 2019
Date of CLAT Entrance Exam 12th May 2019 (3:00 PM to 5:00 PM)
Answer Key Release 3rd week of May 2019
Representation of questions or key Till 3rd week of May 2019
Uploading of amended answer key (if required) 4th week of May 2019
Result/Merit List Declaration Last week of May 2019
First  Indicative Seat Allocation Publication 1st week of June 2019
Date for payment of counseling fee Till 2nd week of June 2019

CLAT Application Form 2019

Candidates check here about CLAT 2019 application form releasing mode, date of availability, required documents to upload & other details:

  • The application form will be available only through online mode from the official website.
  • CLAT Registration 2019 will be started from the 1st January to 31st March 2019.
  • Only one application will be filled by the candidate.
  • Upload your scanned photograph (Dimensions: 200×230 pixels & Size: 20KB to 50KB), Signature (Dimensions:  140×60 pixels & Size: 10KB to 20KB) and Specially Abled Persons (SAP) certificate (If required).
  • There will be no need to send a hard copy of the filled application to the CLAT office.
  • After a successful form submission, no alteration/editing in the online application will be done.

Application Fee:

  • Candidates should submit Rs. 4000 as an application fee.
  • For SC/ST category, it will be Rs. 3500.
  • The fee payment will be done through credit card/debit card/net banking/pay wallet/RuPay, etc.
  • Candidates will also make payment through offline mode (Bank Challan).
  • The fee is non-refundable and non-adjustable.
Category Fee
General/OBC/Specially Abled Persons (SAP) & other categories Rs. 4000 + extra charges
Scheduled Caste (SC)/Scheduled Tribe (ST) Rs. 3500 + extra charges

How to Fill CLAT 2019 Application Form

CLAT Eligibility Criteria 2019

Candidates should check the given eligibility criteria to apply for the CLAT exam. The complete details about CLAT 2019 eligibility are given here:


  • Indian National/NRI/NRI Sponsored candidates can apply.
  • NRI/NRI Sponsored candidates can apply for those NLUs where such category is admitted.
  • Foreign National candidates not need to appear for CLAT exam, they can apply directly to the concerned institutions.

Age Criteria:

  • Upper Age Limit: There will be no upper age limit to apply for UG Integrated & PG courses.

Qualification Criteria:

  • Appearing Candidates: Candidates who are appearing in the qualifying exam are also eligible.
Courses Eligibility
Qualifying Exam Minimum Marks
For UG Integrated Courses Pass 10+2 examination from the recognized board. Secured minimum 45% marks (for Unreserved/OBC/Specially Abled Persons (SAP) and other categories) & 40% marks (for SC/ST categories).
For PG Courses Pass LLB/5 years Integrated LLB (Hons.)/any other equivalent examination. Secured minimum 55% marks (for Unreserved/OBC/Specially Abled Persons (SAP) and other categories) & 50% marks (for SC/ST categories).

CLAT 2019 Exam Pattern

Candidates should check this section to know about CLAT exam pattern details of UG & PG courses including mode, duration, marking scheme, negative marking, etc.

  • Exam Date: The examination will be held on 12th May 2019.
  • Mode: The examination will be conducted in online mode (computer-based test).
  • Duration: The exam duration will be two hours.
  • Type of Questions: Multiple choice/Objective type questions will be asked in the exam.
  • Number of Questions: Total 200 questions (for UG) & 150 questions (for PG) will be asked in the examination.
  • Total Marks: The question paper will be of 200 marks (for UG) & 150 marks (for PG).
  • Marking Scheme: Incorrect response, one mark will be allotted to the candidates.
  • Negative Marking: For the incorrect answer, 0.25 marks will be deducted.
Courses Subjects Marks Duration
For UG courses (Integrated) English including comprehension 40 2 hours
General Knowledge and Current Affairs 50
Elementary Mathematics (Numerical Ability) 20
Legal Aptitude 50
Logical Reasoning 40
For PG Courses Constitutional Law 50 2 hours
Jurisprudence 50
Other Law Subjects such as Contract, Torts, Criminal Law, International Law, IPR etc. 50

CLAT Syllabus 2019

The CLAT 2019 Syllabus of UG courses will be comprised of the following sections, i.e. English including Comprehension, General Knowledge, and Current Affairs, Mathematics, Legal Aptitude & Logical Reasoning.

For PG courses, candidates can study from these sections, i.e. Constitutional Law, Jurisprudence & Other Law Subjects.

Brief syllabus is given below:

English including comprehension

It includes comprehension passages and grammar such as the meanings of words used therein, understanding of the passage, filling of blanks in sentences with appropriate words, correction of incorrect grammatical sentences, etc.

General Knowledge and Current Affairs

It includes general awareness such as static general knowledge, questions on national and international current affairs, etc.


This test will check the candidate’s knowledge on elementary mathematics (maths study in class 10th).

Legal Aptitude

This test will be evaluated to check interest of candidates towards the study of law, problem-solving ability, legal propositions (described in the paper), research aptitude etc.

Logical Reasoning

It includes syllogisms, identifies patterns, logical sequences, rectifies illogical arguments, logical links, analogies, etc.

CLAT Preparation Tips

To crack any entrance exam, preparation is compulsory. Check below, to know some preparation tips & tricks for How to prepare for CLAT exam:

  • Time management is the most important factor for any exam preparation. So divide your time for each section including revision.
  • Prepare from some good CLAT exam books which all are related to the subjects and keep in touch with day to day news.
  • Try to solve last year’s question papers & sample papers for CLAT to get an idea about the examination.
  • Candidates also practice for the different online mock tests. It helps the candidates to achieve good marks in the exam.
  • Make short notes which include important tricks & formulas.

CLAT Admit Card 2019

The university will announce the CLAT 2019 admit card only for the candidates, those complete their registrations & make payment. Check this section for admit card details such as releasing date, mode, etc.

  • Candidates will download the admit card/hall ticket through online mode by logging into their LOGIN account.
  • The CLAT Hall Ticket 2019 will be issued in the third week of April 2019.
  • No admit card will be provided through offline mode or by post.
  • Candidates should carry the downloaded admit card along with all the requisite documents to the examination hall.
  • Along with admit card, candidates should also bring a valid photo ID proof such as Aadhaar Card/Voter ID/ Passport/Driving License.

CLAT Answer Key 2019

Candidates will check the answer key in the third week of May 2019 through online mode on the official website.

Candidates will view the CLAT 2019 answer key through a candidate’s login window by entering their email ID & password.

If candidates have any objection regarding the published answer key, they can contact the officials till May 2019.

The final answer key will be released in the fourth week of May 2019 (if required).

CLAT 2019 Result

Candidates should check this section to get complete details about CLAT 2019 result/merit list declaration:

  • The result will be declared in the last week of May 2019 through online mode.
  • To check the result, candidates have to login with email ID & password.
  • There will be no other mode to check the result.
  • Candidates should download the scorecard for admission purpose.

CLAT Cut Off 2019

Candidates check here for details of CLAT 2019 cut off releasing mode, date, last year cut off, etc.

  • The university will release the cut off for the examination after the result announcement.
  • It may be published in the month May 2019 through online mode.
  • With the help of cut off marks, candidates should know their chances of admission to the different colleges and universities of India.

CLAT Counselling 2019

After the result declaration, the authority will release first indicative seat allocation list on the basis of merit-cum-preference in the first week of June 2019. The details regarding CLAT 2019 councelling process are given below:

  • The authority will organize a centralized counselling for admission to the UG & PG law courses in participating universities.
  • The counselling will be conducted in four rounds.
  • The fee payment & exercising options will be started in the month of June 2019.
  • Candidates have to pay Rs. 50,000 as a counselling fee. It should be adjusted at the time of admission.
  • The allotment of seats will be done on the basis of merit-cum-preference, i.e. CLAT rank, order of preferences, category, number of seats, availability of seats, etc.
  • Candidates have to report to the allotted NLUs with the balanced admission fee

AILET 2019 Exam Date (May 5), Eligibility, Registration, Exam Pattern

What is new in AILET 2019?

With the release of official notification for the exam, the following changes are introduced:

  • AILET Application Fee – The fee has increased by INR 50. Now, the general category has to pay INR 3050 and SC/ ST candidate has to pay INR 1050 to apply for the examination. Know more
  • Seats Offered at NLU Delhi – For LLM Program, seats have increased by 20 i.e. now 40 seats are available under the PG Program. And for Ph.D. program, only 5 seats will be offered. 
  • For LLB and LLM Program, 15% seats are reserved for SC category and 7.5% for ST category.

AILET 2019 Exam Date (May 5), Eligibility, Registration, Exam Pattern

National Law University, Delhi will hold AILET 2019 on May 5 from 3:00 pm to 4:30 pm. The detailed schedule of the All India Law Entrance Test will be available in the 1st week of January 2019 at With the release of official brochure, online application forms will also be available on the University website. 

AILET Application Form 2019

  • AILET Application Form will be available from January 3 onwards.
  • Visit the official website of NLU Delhi i.e. to access the form.
  •  The last date to submit AILET EXAM FORM is April 7 and there is no provision for filling the form by paying a late fee.

The stepwise process to register for the law entrance exam is as follows:

Step 1 – Registration

  • Visit AILET Official website i.e.
  • Click on ‘Apply Online’ link.
  • Fill the required details – Name, contact number, email ID, parents’ name, address and date of birth.
  • After filling the form, click on the Registration button.
  • You will be redirected to Application Locker page, confirm the provided details.

Step 2 – Fill AILET Application Form

  • Choose the college from the list of NLUs and click on ‘Click here to Apply’ button.
  • On the next page, select the course from the drop-down menu.
  • Then click on ‘Apply Now’ button.
  • After being redirected to the online application form of AILET 2019, you need to fill the form.

Step 3 – Uploading Images

  • Upload the scanned photograph.
  • Guidelines for uploading the photograph is as follows:

Note 1 The size of photo must not exceed 150 KB.

Note 2 The face of the candidate should cover at least 75% of the photograph.

Note 3 Scanned copy of photograph can be in .bmp, .jpg or .gif format.

  • Click on “save” and proceed to the next step i.e. AILET Fee Payment.

Step 4 – Application Fee Payment

  • The application fee can be paid via Credit Card/ Debit Card and Net Banking mode.
  • Making payment through card, provide card no., and the expiry date.
  • Candidates paying via Netbanking will be forwarded to the respective bank’s site where your account details are verified and payment is approved. 

AILET Application Fee

The category wise details of AILET 2019 Application Fee are given below. 

Category Application Fee (INR)
General/ OBC 3000
SC/ ST/ PwD 1000
SC/ ST (Below poverty line) Exempted

AILET 2019 Admit Card

  • The examination authority will issue AILET Admit Card from April 14, 2019.
  • The document will be available online at

Stepwise procedure to download admit card for AILET 2019 comprises of following steps:

Step 1: Visit the official website of AILET 2019 – NLU Delhi.

Step 2: Enter your name and date of birth of the issued application number.

Step 3: Take a print out of your AILET Admit Card.

Step 4: Save e-admit card for future reference.

AILET Exam Centers

  • AILET is held in 21 cities across India.
  • They can choose an AILET exam centers while filling up the online form.
  • The final allotted exam center is mentioned in AILET Admit Card.

Pattern and Syllabus for AILET 2019

The paper pattern is defined by the conducting body, NLU Delhi. AILET EXAM PATTERN for each of the BA LLB, LLM and Ph.D Programs is different. Following infographic gives a brief pattern that is common to all the programs:

AILET Exam Pattern of BA LLB

The exam consists of 150 questions. Each question carries one mark. Each incorrect entry and multiple answer entry is considered for negative marking. A negative marking of 0.25 is applicable. AILET 2019 question paper will contain the following sections- English, General Knowledge, Legal Aptitude, Reasoning and Elementary Mathematics. Sectional distribution of questions is as follows:

Section Name Maximum Questions
English 35
General Knowledge 35
Legal Aptitude 35
Reasoning 35
Elementary Mathematics 10
Total 150 Questions

AILET Exam Pattern for LLM

  • LLM paper consists two sections- 100 Objective questions and one Essay question.
  • The total marks for the exam is 150 – 100 marks for the objective section and 50 marks for the essay.

AILET Exam Pattern for Ph.D. Programs

  • AILET exam for Ph. D programs consist of two papers- Paper 1 (Research Methodology) and Paper 2 (Research Proposal Specific Paper).
  • Paper 1 contains 100 multiple choice questions.
  • In paper 2, candidates have to submit a research proposal in 15 pages on the topic of their Ph.D. degree. 

Syllabus for AILET 2019

Candidates appearing for AILET 2019 must be thorough with the complete AILET EXAM SYLLABUS The important topics for each sections are given below:

Section Important Topics 
English Comprehension passages, Synonyms, Antonyms, Choosing correct words, Idioms and phrases, Jumble words and sentences, Fill-in the blanks
General Knowledge History, Geography, General Science, Economics, Civics and Current Affairs
Basic Mathematics Profit and Loss, Speed and Distance, Time and Work, Algebra, Average, Permutation and Combination and Venn Diagrams
Legal Aptitude Study of law, Research aptitude and Problem solving ability
Reasoning Logical and Analytical reasoning skills


AILET Result 2019

  • AILET Result is announced on the official website of NLU Delhi i.e. 
  • The results will be available only in the online mode in PDF format.
  • NLU releases result according to different categories. 
  • You need to search for your name in the list in the PDF.
  • Along with the result, it also releases AILET Merit Lists.  

Tabulated below is the schedule for the result declaration as per the program offered

AILET BA LLB May 24, 2019
AILET LLM July 2, 2019
AILET Ph.D. July 16, 2019

How to Check AILET Result?

Candidates can check their results for AILET 2019 by following the steps given below:

  1. Log on to the official website of NLU Delhi i.e
  2. Click on AILET 2019 Portal.
  3. Next, click on AILET 2019 Result.
  4. Fill in the details in all the required fields.
  5. Check and Download the results

AILET Score Card 2019

  • All qualifying candidates will receive their respective AILET Score Card from NLU Delhi.
  • The score card for AILET is dispatched on the day of declaration of results.
  • It will contain a candidate’s name, roll number, total obtained marks vis-à-vis score in each of the subjects of law entrance exam.
  • Candidates participating in AILET Counselling will be required to present their AILET Score Card.


  • On the basis of entrance exam’s result, AILET cut off is formed to short list candidates for admission into law programs.
  • It is declared separately for all categories by NLU Delhi.
  • Candidates meeting the standards will be entitled to receive the admission letter.
  • AILET cutoff enables candidates to find out how many marks they require to seek admission in the law programs.

For admission in BA LLB programs, AILET 2016 Cut off was 98 out of 150 for General category, 65 for Scheduled Caste, 60 for Scheduled Tribe, 58 for Person with Disability and 82 for Kashmiri Migrants. For admissions to LLM programs, AILET 2016 Cut off was 85 out of 150 for General category, 70 for Scheduled Caste, 52 for Scheduled Tribe and 65 for Person with Disability.

Admission Procedure for AILET 2019

  • AILET counseling will be conducted in offline mode by National Law University, Delhi.
  • It will be held after merit list is published by the university on its website.
  • The examination authority will issue the admission letters to the qualified candidates. Such candidates should remit the admission-cum-counseling fee for AILET 2019.
  • In case a candidate fails to do so within the stipulated time, his candidature for admission in the law program will stand canceled.
  • The admission-cum-counseling fee of AILET has to be remitted to the NLU admission office latest by the third week of June. 
  • Once the admissions are made in the first slot, a list of shortlisted candidates is issued by NLU Delhi for AILET 2019 Spot Counseling Round.
  • AILET Spot Counseling Round will be conducted in the fourth week of June. It is the last round of AILET 2017 admissions. It will be valid for the candidates in the waiting list category.
  • No further admissions will be made after AILET Spot Counseling Round.

AILET 2019 Counselling Schedule

Events Date (tentative)
AILET 2019 Result Date (BA LLB) May 24, 2019
Admission Letter Issue Date May 24, 2019
Fee Deposition Last Date (1st List) June 13, 2019
Spot Counselling Start (Vacant Seats) June 25, 2019
Fee Deposition Last Date only for selected candidates in spot counselling July 5, 2019
Admission Closed July 25, 2019
Selected Candidates Interview July 28-29, 2019
Orientation programme July 30, 2019
Start of session/classes August 1, 2019

AILET Seat Reservation

The seat reservation standards are defined by the coordinating body as per the program opted. The following infographics inform the same:

For BA LLB Courses

Categories Seats Reserved
Scheduled Caste 15%
Scheduled Tribe 7.5%
Persons with Disability 5%
Kashmiri Migrants 1%
J & K 2%

For LLM Courses

tegory Reservation
General 75%
Scheduled Caste 15%
Scheduled Tribe 7.5%
Persons with Disability 5%



Question of the day | Legal terms lists September 25, 2018

Question of the day

Question: Which of the following is entrusted with a statutory duty of laying down the standards of professional conduct and etiquette for advocates in India?

(a)Supreme Court of India

(b) Bar Association of India

(c) Bar Council of India

(d) Delhi Bar Council

Legal terms of the day

1. ACTUS NON FACIT REUM NISI MENS SIT REA –A person will not be guilty without criminal intent.

 2. ACTUS REUS –A guilty deed or act.

 3. AD HOC –For this purpose.

 4. AD INFINITUM –Forever, without limit, to infinity.

 5. AEQUITAS LEGEM SEQUITUR- Equity follows the law.


Today’s answer of the question: C


Pakyong Airport: Sikkim’s first and nation’s 100th airport inaugurated by PM Narendra Modi

On September 24, 2018, Prime Minister Narendra Modi reached Sikkim and was received by Governor Ganga Prasad, Chief Minister Pawan Chamling. He inaugurated Sikkim’s first airport and nation’s 100th operational airport: Pakyong Airport in Sikkim.

Sikkim’s first and nation’s 100th airport inaugurated by PM Narendra Modi

i. This was constructed at an estimated cost of Rs. 605 crore  under UDAN scheme.
ii. It will provide regional connectivity and would initially only cater to domestic flights, the first of which would begin from October 4, 2018.
iii. This will also provide international flight services connecting Sikkim with other countries like Paro in Bhutan, Kathmandu in Nepal and Dhaka in Bangladesh.
iv. The Pakyong airport is located around 60 km from the Indo-China border and about 30 km from the state capital of Gangtok.
Physical Overview of Pakyong Airport:
i. The airport has a 3,000 sq metre terminal building and has a capacity to handle 50 in-bound and as many out-bound passengers.
ii. It has a 1.75 km runway with a width of 30 metre.
Other News:
i. On March 5, IAF’s Dornier-228 aircraft was tested from Pakyong.
ii. Following that, on March 10, SpiceJet conducted  test runs of the 78-seater Bombardier Q400 from Kolkata to Pakyong.
♦ Capital: Gangtok.
♦ Chief Minister: Pawan Kumar Chamling.
♦ Governor: Shri Ganga Prasad.
♦ National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries: Khangchendzonga National Park, Barsey Rhododendron  Wildlife Sanctuary, Pangolakha  Wildlife Sanctuary, Shingba (Rhododendron)  Wildlife Sanctuary.
♦ Sikkim was announced to be the ‘first full organic state of India’ in January 2016.

‘Ayushman Bharat’ scheme launched by  PM Narendra Modi in Ranchi, Jharkhand

On September 23, 2018, Prime Minister Narendra Modi rolled out the Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana-Ayushman Bharat in Ranchi, Jharkhand, covering 57 lakh families in the state.

'Ayushman Bharat' scheme launched by PM Narendra Modi in Ranchi, Jharkhand

He also launched a toll free no of the Ayushman Bharat scheme: 14555.
i. PMJAY-Ayushman Bharat is considered to be the biggest government-sponsored healthcare scheme in the world.
ii. It will be funded with 60 per cent contribution coming from the Centre and remaining from the states.
iii. 31 states and Union territories have signed MOU with Centre to implement this scheme except: Telangana, Odisha, Delhi, Kerala and Punjab.
iv. Under this scheme, more than 1,300 ailments are covered under it, including heart diseases, kidney and liver disorders and diabetes.
v. 2,500 modern hospitals would come up in tier-II and tier-III cities and would generate employment opportunities.
vi. A total of 13,000 hospitals have become a part of the Ayushman Bharat scheme.
Other News:
i. On his visit to Ranchi for this occasion, he laid the foundation stone for medical colleges at Chaibasa and Koderma.
ii. He also inaugurated 10 health and wellness centres.
As per the latest Socio-Economic Caste Census (SECC) data, there are 8.03 crore poor, deprived rural families in rural and 2.33 crore urban workers’ families in urban areas.
About Ayushman Bharat – National Health Protection Mission (AB-NHPM):
i. Ayushman Bharat – National Health Protection Mission is a scheme that was announced by the Union Minister for Finance and Corporate Affairs, Shri Arun Jaitely while presenting the General Budget 2018-19  will cover over 10 crore poor and vulnerable families (approximately 50 crore beneficiaries) providing coverage upto 5 lakh rupees per family per year for secondary and tertiary care hospitalization. It will subsume the on-going centrally sponsored schemes – Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY) and the Senior Citizen Health Insurance Scheme (SCHIS).
ii. Under this scheme , Rs 1200 crore has been allotted for establishing 1.5 lakh Health and Wellness Centres .  24 new Government Medical Colleges and Hospitals will be set up, by up-grading existing district hospitals in the country. At least 1 Medical College for every 3 Parliamentary Constituencies and at least Government Medical College in each State of the country.
♦ CEO of Ayushman Bharat Yojana: Indu Bhushan.

Centenary celebrations of Dakshina Bharat Hindi Prachar Sabha inaugurated by President

On September 24, 2018, President Ram Nath Kovind inaugurated the centenary celebrations of the Dakshina Bharat Hindi Prachar Sabha in New Delhi.

Centenary celebrations of Dakshina Bharat Hindi Prachar Sabha inaugurated by President

i. This emphasized India’s diversity and multiculturalism.
About Dakshina Bharat Hindi Prachar Sabha:
♦ It is an organization whose main goal is to improve Hindi literacy among the non-Hindi speaking people of South India.
♦ Headquarters: Chennai.
♦ Founder: M. K. Gandhi and Annie Besant.
♦ Founded: 1918.

Home Minister chaired a meeting of central Zonal Council held in Lucknow, UP

On September 24, 2018, Home Minister Rajnath Singh has chaired a meeting of the central Zonal Council in Lucknow.
i. Chief minister Yogi Adityanath was vice chairman of the council and the host.
ii. The meeting comprised of the states of Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Uttarakhand. 
iii. It addressed the common concerns of the participating states and settled cross-border concerns.
iv. Some of these issues are:

  • Issue of distribution of assets between Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand,
  • Issues related to Dams, Flow of Rivers and compensation for certain projects.

v. The previous meeting of the council was held in January 2015.
Under the State Reorganization Act, 1956, 5 Zonal Councils — central, westernnorthern, southern and eastern — have been established.
Uttar Pradesh:
♦ Chief Minister: Yogi Adityanath.
♦ Governor: Ram Naik.
♦ National Parks: Dudhwa National Park, Philibit Tiger Reserve , Sandi Bird Sanctuary.
♦ UNESCO Heritage Site: Agra Fort, Fatehpur Sikri.

Two-day National Orientation workshop on National e-Vidhan Application (NeVA) inaugurated by Shri Arjun Ram Meghwal, MoSPA

On September 24, 2018, Union Minister of State for Parliamentary Affairs, Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation, Shri Arjun Ram Meghwal inaugurated the two-day National Orientation workshop on National e-Vidhan Application (NeVA).
This workshop was organized by Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs.
Key Points:
About NeVA:
i. It is a part of the e-Vishan  mission on  ‘One Nation One Application’ and the project cost is : Rs.739 Crore (approx.) .
ii. The mNeVA (NeVA-mobile app) is a user friendly app that provides information on conduct of business in Legislatures accessible anytime, anywhere to everyone.
iii. It is a member-centric, decentralised digital application that has the day-to-day information available in the digital platform of e-Vidhan.
iv. The Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs, being the Nodal Ministry for the project of e-Vidhan aims to roll out NeVA in 40 Houses including two Houses of Parliament.
v. Other features of the app are:

  • List of Business (LOB), Notices,
  • Bills: Introduced/ Consideration & Passing, Synopsis of Proceedings, House Proceedings,
  • Committees Reports, Rules & Procedures,
  • Rotation of Ministries,Contacts, BudgetPress Releases etc.

vi. This would bring transparency, accountability and responsiveness in the conduct of business of the Legislative Assembly, through the use of technology.
vii. It has been made live for Rajya sabha for the Monsoon Session of 2018 and the following State Assemblies:
Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Tamil Nadu, Sikkim, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Puducherry, Manipur .
viii. In 2014, Himachal Pradesh first agreed for a pilot project with central assistance of Rs.8.12 crores which made the Shimla Legislative Assembly the first Assembly in India to go paperless.
ix. It saved  Rs.5.08 crores annually on account of expenditure on papers, printing, manpower costs
About e-Vidhan:
Part of Digital India programme and nodal agency is the Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs. It was launched to digitize and make the functioning of State Legislatures paperless.
Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs:
♦ Union Minister: Shri Ananth Kumar.
♦ Minster of State: Shri Vijay Goel , Shri Arjun Ram Meghwal.
♦ Secretary: Shri Surendra Nath Tripathi.

AP, Odisha & Madhya Pradesh Best Performing States in “Ease of Living Index” Under Amrut

On September 24, 2018, the “Ease of Living Index” rankings was launched by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA) under Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT) at the National Dissemination Workshop on Ease of Living Index, 2018 in New Delhi.
i. Andhra Pradesh has topped the charts followed by Odisha and Madhya Pradesh.
ii. The first round of Ease of Living covered 111 cities.
iii. Gurugram was subsequently included in the assessment.
iv. Four cities of West Bengal – Howrah, New Town Kolkata, Kolkata and Durgapur did not participate in the competition.
v. Naya Raipur of Chhattisgarh and Amravati of Andhra Pradesh did not fulfill the parameters as they are green-field cities.
About Ease of Doing Business:
i. It is a measurement of the cities in the country to enable them to implement and promote evidence-based planning and action towards sustainable urbanization.
ii. In June 2017 decision to rank 116 cities (all smart cities and million plus cities) based on the liveability parameters was taken and the implementation of the assessment commenced formally on 19 January 2018.
iii. The MoHUA released the first ever ‘Ease of Living Index’ covering 111 Indian cities on 13 August, 2018 and all cities were evaluated out of 100.
iv. The Ease of Living framework comprised four pillars namely Institutional, Social, Economic and Physical which are further broken down into 78 indicators across 15 categories.
v. Of the 17 SDG goals8 goals are directly linked to India’s ease of living assessment framework.
Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA):
♦ Minister of State (I/C): Shri Hardeep Singh Puri.
♦ Secretary: Shri durga Shanker Mishra.

Nepal to be world’s first country to double its tiger population

Nepal is likely to become the first country in the world to double its tiger population.
i. Nepal has announced that there are an estimated 235 wild tigers in Nepal currently. It has almost doubled from 121 tigers in 2009.
ii. If this trend continues, Nepal could become the first country to double its national tiger population.

IGI Airport 16th busiest in the world: ACI report on Airport Traffic

On September 20, 2018, according to ‘The Annual World Airport Traffic Report 2018’ by Airport Council International (ACI), Indira Gandhi International Airport (IGI) is the 16th busiest in the world.
i. It jumped 6 places from 22nd position in 2016.
ii. In 2017, IGI has handled 63.4 million passengers accounting for 14 per cent more passengers than in 2016.
Highlights of the report:
i. The first place was held by Atlanta Hartsfield-Jackson in the US handling 103.9 million passengers in 2017, followed by Beijing with 95.8 million passengers.
ii. The other 3 consisting of the top 5 are:
Dubai International Airport handling 88.2 million passengers at third position.
Tokyo and Los Angeles dealing with 85.4 million and 84.5 million passengers stood at 4th and 5th place.
iii. Passenger traffic in advanced economies grew 5.2 per cent while in emerging economies it rose 10.3 per cent in 2017.
iv. Traffic was measured on three thematic areas: passengers, cargo (freight and mail) and aircraft movements in 2500 airports of 175 countries.
About ACI:
♦ Headquarters: Montreal, Canada.
♦ Director General: Angela Gittens.
♦ ACI is the trade association of the world’s airports, currently serving 641 members operating 1,953 airports across 176 countries.

RBI shortlisted 5 IT firms for implementation of Centralised information and Management System (CIMS)

On September 23, 2018, Reserve Bank shortlisted five IT firms for implementation of a centralized information and management system (CIMS) for data collection.
Key Points:
i. The 5 IT firms are: Infosys, TCS, Capgemini, IBM, Larsen  & Turbo Infotech.
ii. The CIMS would consist of:

  • Seamless data collection,
  • System driven data validation and data review,
  • Data safekeeping and storage,
  • Providing data dissemination platform
  • Overhauling the Data Warehouse (DW) of RBI and

Centralised analytics platform to facilitate creation of RBI Data Sciences Lab.
iii. This is in line with RBI’s decision of data science lab where the analysts from different backgrounds such as-data analytics, statistics, economics, econometrics and/or finance would work on data collection from about 130 banks/entities.
♦ Headquarters: Mumbai.
♦ 24th Governor: Dr. Urjit Patel.

Maha, Tamil Nadu & Karnataka account for 40 percent of retail loans: TrancUnion Cibil

On September 24, 2018, according to a new report by TransUnion Cibil, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka make up for nearly 40 per cent of all retail loans in the country.
Key Points as per the report:
i. The increase in retail balances were due to economic development and urbanization.
ii. The 3 states of Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka represent about 20% of the population of the country and 32 per cent of the credit active population.
iii. Overall, the 10 largest Indian states represented Rs 21.27 lakh crore in balances, which comprised almost 76 per cent of the total balance share.
iv. Out of this, Maharashtra had the highest retail balance of Rs 5.50 lakh crore, comprising of 20 per cent in the country, followed by Tamil Nadu with Rs 2.77 lakh crore and Karnataka with Rs 2.74 lakh crore.
v. The lending rose by nearly 27 per cent between the second quarters of 2017 and 2018.
vi. Loans against property was the only product category which saw increase in rates to 65 bais points.
TransUnion Cibil:
♦ Headquarters: Mumbai.
♦ MD & CEO: Satish Pillai.

BSNL signed MOU with Softbank, NTT to roll out 5G, IoT service

On September 24, 2018, BSNL has inked a pact with Japan’s Softbank and NTT Communications to roll out 5G and internet of things technology in India.

BSNL signed MOU with Softbank, NTT to roll out 5G, IoT service

i. Under this, BSNL and Softbank will work on satellite constellation which will have around 900 satellites to provide high speed internet services.
ii. The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India has recommended auction of about 8,644 MHz of telecom frequencies at an estimated base price of Rs 4.9 lakh crore
Other News:
BSNL has also inked pacts with Nokia and Cisco for  developing 5G ecosystem.
i. Recently On September 13, 2018, NITI Aayog and BSNL inked pact under DoT for the test trials of 5G.
ii. On August 25, 2018, a 5G forum lead by Prof. AJ Paulraj submitted its report to DoT for induction of 5G by 2020.
 About BSNL: 
♦ Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited was incorporated on 1st October 2000.
♦ Headquarters: New Delhi.
♦ CMD: Shri Anupam Shrivastava.
SoftBank Group:
Headquarters: Minato, Tokyo, Japan.

Ibrahim Mohamed Solih elected as the New President of Maldives

On 24th September 2018, Ibrahim Mohamed Solih was elected the new President of Maldives.

Ibrahim Mohamed Solih elected as the New President of Maldives

Ibrahim Mohamed Solih – President of Maldives:
i. Ibrahim Mohamed Solih will be 6th President of Maldives. He replaces Abdulla Yameen.
ii. Ibrahim Mohamed Solih is 56 years old. He belongs to the Maldivian Democratic Party (MDP). He is one of the founding members of MDP.
iii. He has been representing Lhaviyani Atoll in the Maldivian Parliament since 1994. In 2011, he became the leader of MDP’s parliamentary group.
About Maldives:
♦ Capital – Male
♦ Currency – Maldivian rufiyaa
♦ Official language – Maldivian

US Scientists for first time grew miniature human oesophagus in lab with stem cells

On September 24, 2018, US scientists from the Cincinnati Children’s Hospital in Ohio, for the first time have used stem cells to grow human oesophagus — known as the food pipe — in the laboratory.
i. They have used pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) in the process.
ii. The bio-engineered tissues grew to a length of about 300-800 micrometres in about two months.
iii. It can be used to study birth defects like esophageal atresia, the organoids can be used to study diseases like eosinophilic esophagitis and Barrett’s metaplasia.

Prithvi Defence Vehicle successfully test fired off the coast of Odisha

On September 23, 2018, a two-layer Ballistic Missile Defence system, Prithvi Defence Vehicle was successfully test fired from Abdul Kalam Island of the Integrated Test Range (ITR) off the coast of Odisha.
i. The Prithvi Defence Vehicle (PDV) would engage in targets in the exo-atmosphere region, above 50 kilometres of the earth’s atmosphere.
ii. Both the PDV interceptor and the target missile were successfully engaged with the help of radar-based detection and tracking system.
iii. It was guided by high-accuracy Inertial Navigation System (INS) supported by a Redundant Micro Navigation System.
iv. The test range was earlier known as earlier known as Wheeler Island of the Integrated Test Range (ITR).
♦ Headquarters: New Delhi.
♦ Founded:1958.
♦ Defence Minister: Smt. Nirmala Sitharaman.
♦ Minister of State for Defence : Dr.Subhash Bhamre.
♦ Defence Secretary and Chairman of DRDO: Dr. G. Satheesh Reddy.
♦ Lakes : Chilika Lake, Kanjia Lake, Anshupa Lake, Balimela Reservoir.
♦ Dams: Rengali Dam, Kala dam, Pitamahal Dam, Kansbahal Dam, Tikhali Dam, Deras Dam, Salia Dam, Ghodahada Dam, Kuanria Dam.

France Football launches Women’s Ballon d’Or

On 24th September 2018, France Football magazine announced that, a women’s Ballon d’Or will be awarded for the first time in 2018.

France Football launches Women’s Ballon d’Or

i. Ballon d’Or is awarded annually for men since 1956. This is the first time it has been introduced for women. The awards will be presented on 8 December 2018 in Paris, France.

Junior World Wrestling Championship held in Trnava, Slovakia

From 17 to 23 September 2018, Junior World Wrestling Championship was held in Trnava, Slovakia.
Key Points:
i. India won 7 medals: 4 silver and 3 bronze in the Junior World Wrestling Championship.
ii. Indian medal winners:

Sl. No Medal Name Category
1 Silver Naveen Sihag Men’s Free Style 57 kg
2 Silver Deepak Punia Men’s Free Style 86 Kg
3 Silver Vijay Men’s Greco Roman 60 Kg
4 Silver Sajan Men’s Greco Roman 77 Kg
5 Bronze Vijay Men’s Greco Roman 55 Kg
6 Bronze Mansi Women’s Wrestling 57Kg
7 Bronze Anshu Women’s Wrestling 59kg

China Open 2018 (Badminton)

From 18th to 23rd September 2018, China Open 2018 officially named Victor China Open 2018 was held in Changzhou, Jiangsu, China.

Event Winner Runner-up
Men’s Singles Anthony Sinisuka Ginting (Indonesia) Kento Momota (Japan)
Women’s Singles Carolina Marín (Spain) Chen Yufei (China)
Men’s Doubles Kim Astrup, Anders Skaarup Rasmussen (Denmark) Han Chengkai, Zhou Haodong (China)
Women’s Doubles Misaki Matsutomo, Ayaka Takahashi (Japan) Mayu Matsumoto, Wakana Nagahara (Japan)
Mixed Doubles Zheng Siwei, Huang Yaqiong (China) Zhang Nan, Li Yinhui (China)

5th Track Asia Cup (cycling) 2018 in New Delhi: India finished on top with 6 gold, 5 silver, 2 bronze

On 21-23 September 2018, the 5th Track Asia Cup (cycling) 2018 was held at the Indira Gandhi Velodrome in New Delhi.

5th Track Asia Cup (cycling) 2018

Key Points:
i. Track Asia Cup (cycling) 2018 event was organized by Cycling Federation of India (CFI). 12 countries participated in the event.
ii. India topped the medal tally with 6 gold, 5 silver and 2 bronze medals. It was followed by Indonesia in 2nd place with 4 gold, 3 silver and 1 bronze and Hong Kong in third spot with 4 gold and 2 bronze medals.
Indian gold medal winners:

Sl. No. Medal Name Category
1 Gold Mayuri Lute Women’s junior 500 m
2 Gold Esow, Abhishek, Jemsh Singh Men’s junior team sprint
3 Gold E Chaoba Devi Women’s elite 3 km individual pursuit
4 Gold Swasti Singh Women’s junior 2 km individual pursuit
5 Gold Esow Alben Men’s junior 200 m sprint
6 Gold Mayuri Lute Women’s junior 200 m sprint

About Cycling Federation of India (CFI):
♦ President – Parminder Singh Dhindsa
♦ Location – New Delhi

Former Union minister Shantaram Potdukhe passes away

On 23rd September 2018, former Union Minister and Congress leader Shantaram Potdukhe passed away following a short term illness, in Maharashtra.

Former Union minister Shantaram Potdukhe passes away

i. Shantaram Potdukhe was 86 years old. He was a four-time MP (Member of Parliament) from Chandrapur in eastern Maharashtra.
ii. He was a Union minister of state for finance. He had played a major role in development of educational institutes in Chandrapur and Gadchiroli districts of Maharashtra.

Former BCCI president BN Dutt passes away

On 24th September 2018, former BCCI (Board of Control for Cricket in India) president Biswanath Dutt died following an acute lung infection, at his home in Kolkata.
Death of Biswanath Dutt:
i. Biswanath Dutt was 92 years old. He was the president of BCCI from 1988 to 1990.
ii. He was also president of the Cricket Association of Bengal from 1986 to 1991. He also served as president of the Indian Football Association.
About Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI):
♦ President – C.K. Khanna
♦ CEO – Rahul Johri
♦ Headquarters – Mumba


Question of the day | Legal terms lists September 24, 2018

Question of the day

Question: In law, the term ‘neighbour’ means-

(a) People who stay in your locality

(b) People who live adjoining to your residence

(c) People who might be affected by your actions

(d) The word has not been given any particular definition

Legal terms of the day

1. RE –In the matter of.

2. RES –Matter, affair, thing, circumstance. Res judicata A thing adjudged is accepted for the truth.

3. AB INITIO –From the beginning

4. ACCESSORIUS SEQUITUR –An accessory to the crime cannot be guilty of a more serious crime than the principal offender.

5. ACTORI INCUMBIT ONUS PROBANDI- The burden of proof lies on the plaintiff.


Today’s answer of the day question: C



Israel, India to commemorate Centenary of the Battle of Haifa on September 23

On 23rd September 2018, the Battle of Haifa was commemorated in Israel, Delhi, and Jaipur.

Israel, India to commemorate Centenary of the Battle of Haifa on September 23

i. Centenary celebrations were observed to commemorate 100 years of liberation of Haifa in Israel by the Indian troops in 1918.
ii. Indian Army commemorates September 23 as Haifa Day every year. It pays tribute to the two Indian Cavalry Regiments, Mysore and Jodhpur Lancers that helped to liberate Haifa.

$525 Million Loan approved for Infra Projects in Madhya Pradesh by NDB

On September 20, 2018, the New Development Bank (NDB) of the BRICS announced a $525-million loan to Madhya Pradesh for infrastructure projects.

$525 Million Loan approved for Infra Projects in Madhya Pradesh

i. The breakup of the loan amount is as follows:
$350-million loan for the Major District Roads Project II of Madhya Pradesh and
$175 million for building and upgrading 350 bridges.
ii. 2000 km roads of major districts would be rehabilitated through this loan amount and will help in better connectivity.
Other News:
A non-sovereign loan of $300 million was approved by NDB to SIBUR Holding of Russia for environmentally-sustainable infrastructure development related to the Zap SibNefteKhim project.
♦ Headquarters:  Shanghai, China.
♦ Founded: 15th July 2014.
♦ President: K.V. Kamath.
♦ Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa.

Corporation Bank & NeSL ink pact for sharing security information under IBBI rule

On September 20, 2018, Corporation bank inked a pact on information utility (IU) agreement with National e-Governance Services Ltd (NeSL).
To share financial and security information under IBBI (IU) Regulation 2017.
Key Points:
i. Under IBBI (IU) Regulation 2017, this would help in:

  • Providing data in case of insolvency of the bank,
  • Providing proof of borrowing, proof of default and security interest data in respect of NCLT cases.

Corporation Bank:
♦ Headquarters: Mangalore.
♦ MD & CEO: Shri Jai Kumar Garg.
♦ Tagline: A Premier Public Sector Bank, Prosperity for all.
♦ Full form of NCLT: National Company Law Tribunal.

Tax Dept. slapped YES Bank with Rs 38 crore in GST fines for violating domestic remittances norms

On September 21, 2018, Yes Bank paid Rs 38 crore in fines to the GST department for alleged violations in domestic remittances.
i. Out of this, over Rs 32 crore has been paid to the GST department, while Rs 6 crore has been paid in service tax which has been replaced by GST from July 2017.
ii. RBI has asked incumbent CEO Rana Kapoor to step aside by end of January 2019.
iii. It is due to the underpayment of tax by the bank and is related to remittances by migrants from urban pockets to their homes in rural areas.
YES Bank:
♦ MD&CEO: Rana Kapoor.
♦ Headquarters: Mumbai.
♦ Tagline: Experience our Expertise.

Indian actress Jaya Prada appointed goodwill ambassador for Nepal tourism

Indian actress Jaya Prada has been appointed Goodwill Ambassador for the promotion of Nepal tourism for a term of 4 years.

Jaya Prada appointed goodwill ambassador for Nepal tourism

i. She is also a former Member of Parliament. Her appointment would strengthen the cultural ties between India and Nepal and help promote Nepal’s tourism in India.
ii. Nepal government has also decided to observe 2020 as the ‘Visit Nepal Year’.

Anil Kumar Chaudhary replaced P K Singh as new SAIL chairman

On September 21, 2018, Prime Minister Narendra Modi-led Appointments Committee of the Cabinet (ACC) appointed Anil Kumar Chaudhary as the new chairman of the Steel Authority of India till his superannuation in December, 2020.

Anil Kumar Chaudhary replaced P K Singh as new SAIL chairman

i. Presently, he is serving as the Director (Finance) in SAIL.
ii. Earlier P K Singh was the chairman of SAIL.
Other appointments by ACC:
i. P K Rath has been appointed as CMD of the Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Limited (RINL)
ii. He is presently the Director (operations) in RINL.
iii. Aslo,V Gopi Suresh Kumar was appointed as Director (Projects) in RITES Limted, a railway consultancy firm.
iv. Currently, Kumar is serving as the executive director in the EPIL.
Headquarters: New Delhi.
Headquarters: Visakhapatnam.

National compound archery coach Jiwanjot Singh Teja resigns

On 21st September 2018, national compound archery coach Jiwanjot Singh Teja resigned as the national coach following the denial of Dronacharya award.
Resignation of Jiwanjot Singh Teja:
i. Jiwanjot Singh Teja’s name was recommended for the Dronacharya award by the Dronacharya award committee. But his name was removed by the sports ministry.
ii. Following this incident, Jiwanjot Singh Teja resigned as national coach. He is also chief coach with Punjabi University, Patiala.
iii. In 2015, he was the chief coach of the Indian Universities archery team for the World University Games in South Korea. The team missed bronze medal due to a confusion in timing.
iv. Following this, Association of Indian Universities had banned him for one-and-half years. Archery Association of India (AAI) had also banned him for a year.
About Archery Association of India (AAI):
♦ Acting President – Tarlochan Singh
♦ Location – Delhi

India to host AIBA Women’s World Boxing Championships in New Delhi

AIBA Women’s World Boxing Championships will be hosted by India from 13-25 November 2018 in New Delhi.
Key Points:
i. All participating countries will arrive in New Delhi before 13 November 2018. The competition will start on 15th November 2018.
ii. This championship was last held in India in 2006 and India made its best ever performance that year. India had topped the medal tally with 4 gold, 3 silver and 1 bronze medal.
iii. The first edition of AIBA women’s world championship was held in Scranton, Unites States in 2001.
About AIBA (International Boxing Association):
♦ Interim President – Mr Gafur Rahimov
♦ Headquarters – Lausanne, Switzerland

Vaishali Narendra Salavkar will be India’s first female blind chess player at World Chess Olympiad

Blind chess player Vaishali Narendra Salavkar will become the first Indian female to be part of the International Braille Chess Association (IBCA) team at the world chess Olympiad that will be held in Batumi, Georgia, from September 23, 2018.
Key Points:
i. IBCA which is affiliated to FIDE (World Chess Federation) sends its teams to participate at the chess Olympiad.
ii. Vaishali is 45 yaers old. She hails from Maharashtra. She is an eight-time national champion. She has an Elo rating of 1,357 points.
iii. A total of 7 Indian women chess players are participating in the world chess Olympiad.
iv.  Malika Handa, is participating as part of the International Chess Committee of Deaf (ICCD) team.
v. Normal women’s team players participating in the Olympiad are: Koneru Humpy, Harika Dronavalli, Tania Sachdev, Karavade Esha and Padmini Rout.
About International Braille Chess Association (IBCA):
♦ President – Jadhav Charudatta
♦ Type – apex body of chess for the blind and visually impaired

Belgium joins France in number 1 spot in FIFA rankings with top spot shared for first time (football)

Belgium has joined France in number one position on the FIFA (International Federation of Association Football) rankings released on 20th September 2018.
Key Points:
i. This is the first time in the 25-year history of FIFA rankings, the first spot is shared.
ii. Belgium earned two wins, including their first win in the UEFA (Union of European Football Associations) Nations League over Iceland in early September to equal France with 1729 points, and has achieved the top position.
iii.  Top 10 rankings as per FIFA:

Rank Team
1 France
1 Belgium
3 Brazil
4 Croatia
5 Uruguay
6 England
7 Portugal
8 Switzerland
9 Spain
10 Denmark

About FIFA (International Federation of Association Football):
♦ President – Gianni Infantino
♦ Headquarters – Zurich, Switzerland

Filmmaker Kalpana Lajmi passes away at 64

On 23rd September 2018, filmmaker Kalpana Lajmi passed after she had suffered from chronic kidney disease and liver failure, in Mumbai, Maharashtra.


Death of Kalpana Lajmi:
i. Kalpana Lajmi was 64 years old. She was a director, producer and screenwriter.
ii. She was known for working on real subjects and making women-centric films. Some of her popular films are: Rudaali, Daman, Darmiyaan, etc.
iii. She had also written a book titled “Bhupen Hazarika – As I Knew Him.”

International Day of Sign Languages (IDSL) – September 23

On 23rd September 2018, the first International Day of Sign Languages (IDSL) was observed throughout the world.
Key Points:
i. When: In 2017, United Nations General Assembly declared 23 September as the International Day of Sign Languages. 23 September was chosen to commemorate the formation of World Federation of the Deaf (WFD) on 23 September 1951.
ii. Why: to create awareness on the importance of sign language in the full realization of human rights of the hearing impaired people.
iii. Theme: for International Day of Sign Languages (IDSL) 2018: “With Sign Language, Everyone is Included!”
iv. Also, International Week of the Deaf is observed on 24-30 September 2018.
About World Federation of the Deaf (WFD):
♦ President – Mr Colin Allen
♦ Secretariat – Helsinki, Finland