1) PM Modi China Visit: Important Highlights

  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi arrived in New Delhi after a two-day informal summit meeting with Chinese President Xi Jinping in Wuhan. The Prime Minister was received at the airport by External Affairs Minister Sushma Swaraj. Earlier, Prime Minister Modi wrapped up his two-day visit to China with both the countries underlining the importance of maintaining peace and tranquillity in all areas of their border region in the larger interest of the overall development of bilateral relations.
  • On day two both leaders took a long walk by Wuhan’s iconic East Lake. The two leaders also agreed to issue “strategic guidance” to their militaries to strengthen communications and to build trust and understanding. After the walk the talk followed a Naav (Boat) pe charcha. The two leaders took a boat ride on a traditional Chinese wooden boat sporting a pagoda. Wuhan is a city of freshwater lakes along the banks of the Yangtze River.

2) LCA Tejas Successfully Fired Air-To-Air BVR Missile

  • Indigenously developed Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) Tejas has successfully fired an air-to-air beyond visual range (BVR) missile. With this, Tejas has demonstrated its overall capability as an effective combat jet and inched closer to receive final operational clearance.
  • The test firing of the missile from a Tejas jet was carried off the Goa coast and it met all operational requirements. The successful launch of the BVR missile will expedite issuance of the Final Operational Clearance to the aircraft developed by state-run Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) and Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO).

3) Government declares all protected areas ‘plastic free zones’

  • The environment ministry has banned plastics in all protected areas throughout India, declaring them “plastic free zones”. This initiative has been taken prior to the World Environment Day on 5th June. States and Union territories have been directed to conduct awareness campaigns to enlighten people about this issue.India will host the World Environment Day for 2018. United Nations environment chief Erik Solheim visited India recently and signed a letter of intent declaring India to host the World Environment Day. Environment secretary C K Mishra said all protected areas and forest reserves will be plastic free zones. This will be mandatorily enforced. He added that, alternatives to plastics will be made available gradually.

4) UN Chief Appoints Christine Schraner Burgener As Special Envoy On Myanmar

  • UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres has appointed Christine Schraner Burgener of Switzerland as his new special envoy on Myanmar. Until her appointment, Burgener was the Ambassador of Switzerland to Germany since 2015. Peru, Kuwait and the United Kingdom will co-lead the visit to Bangladesh and Myanmar.

5) A first of its kind Israeli Modern Art Exhibition inaugurated in the Capital

  • A first of its kind Israeli Modern Art Exhibition was inaugurated in New Delhi on April 28, 2018. This exhibition titled ‘To the End of Land’ was organised by National Gallery of Modern Art, New Delhi in collaboration with the Embassy of Israel in India and the Petach Tikva Museum of Art, Israel. It was organised to mark the occasion of 25 years of diplomatic relations between India and Israel. The exhibition is a collection of contemporary art creations of 19 Israeli artists, including the internationally acclaimed Shahar Marcus who also performed at the exhibition opening. The innovative modern art pieces and installations at the exhibition focus on connection of human beings with land, territory, locality and identity.

6) NDMA conducts its first-ever Mock Exercise on Bio-Disasters at Patna airport

  • A five-day day training programme, aimed at enhancing the preparedness of Airport Emergency Handlers (AEHs) to respond to Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN)emergencies at the airports, concluded on April 27, 2018 at the Lok Nayak Jayaprakash Airport in Patna, Bihar. During the course of this training, National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) andNational Disaster Response Force (NDRF) jointly conducted its first-ever full-scale Biological Management Emergency Exercise. This mock exercise was based on a simulated situation wherein the participants responded to a suspected Ebola outbreak scenario. Participants in this drill included personnel from Airport Management, Customs, Health and Medical services, Immigration, Fire Services, State Disaster Management Authority and Disease Surveillance.

7) Fitch retains India’s sovereign rating at ‘BBB-‘ with ‘stable’ outlook

  • Global credit ratings agency, Fitch ratings has retained India’s sovereign rating at BBB- with a stable outlook on account of its assessment that upside and downside risks to ratings remains evenly balanced. As per Fitch’s assessment, positive factors such as strong medium-term growth outlook for Indian economy and favourable external balances are countered by weak fiscal management and sub-par structural factors, including governance standards and a difficult business environment. In context of this news, it is important to note that a rating upgrade reflects positive outlook for the country and makes it an attractive destination for investors. Fitch has retained ‘BBB-‘ with stable outlook for India since August 2006. However, it changed the outlook to negative in 2012 and then again to stable in 2013.

8) Lands get unique number in Andhra’s new project ‘Bhu Seva’

  • On 28th April 2018, Andhra Pradesh Deputy Chief Minister (Revenue) K E Krishnamurthy initiated Andhra Pradesh government’s ‘Bhu Seva’ (land hub) project aimed at offering integrated services related with land. As per the Bhu Seva project, each land parcel will be given a Bhudhar Number. The Bhudhar Number is an 11 digit unique number. It will help in easy identification of the details of land parcel. A pilot project of this scheme was launched on 11th April 2018 in Jaggaiah Peta Mandal and Vuyyur Nagar Panchayat of Krishna district. K E Krishnamurthy said that, Andhra Pradesh is the first state in India to complete geotagging of each land parcel in the state. Ch Vijayamohan is the Mission Director of Bhu Seva Mission.

9) Centre to launch National Disaster Database

  • Indian Government will soon launch a uniform and credible national-level disaster database on UN Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR’s) insistence to implement its commitment to the Sendai Framework. India’s National Disaster Database will be a dynamic platform having locally obtained and validated data on nationwide losses of properties and lives occurring due to disasters. The state authorities will be directed to mandatorily report and feed all disaster-related losses in the platform on real time basis.
  • Having National Disaster Database will not only reduce dependence on estimates given by external entities about the losses caused by man-made and natural disasters in India but will also help Central Government in deciding the quantum of future investments in critical infrastructure. During 2005 and 2014, India was affected by 167 disasters that caused damages to the tune of $47 billion. According to UNISDR, India ranks among the top four countries in the world with highest number of reported disasters.

10) Indian Culinary Institute inaugurated

  • On 27th April 2018, K.J.Alphons, Minister of State for Tourism (Independent Charge) and Minister of State for Electronics and Information Technology inaugurated the Indian Culinary Institute (ICI) at Noida: The Indian Culinary Institute (ICI) has been set up by the Ministry of Tourism. Dr.Mahesh Sharma, Minister of State for Culture (Independent Charge) and Minister of State for Environment, Forest and Climate Change was the Chief Guest of the event. The Noida campus is one of the two ICI campuses. The other one is developed at Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh.
  •  The Noida campus has been set up on an area of 5 acres. The total project cost is Rs.98 crore. It comprises academic block, commercial area, hostels for boys and girls, guesthouse for visiting faculties, water harvesting, etc. ICI offers courses in Diploma, Under Graduation, and Post-Graduation and research in Culinary Arts.  It has well equipped kitchen labs, micro biology lab, Cuisine theatre, Training Restaurants, fully equipped class rooms, library, and a modern hostel which can accommodate 400 students.

11) Sikkim Chief Minister Becomes India’s Longest-Serving CM

  • Sikkim Chief Minister Pawan Chamling became the longest-serving Chief Minister in India, surpassing the record of Jyoti Basu, who served as West Bengal CM from 1977 to 2000. Chamling became the Chief Minister in December 1994 and belongs to the Sikkim Democratic Front.

12) Delhi govt to set up Rogi Kalyan Samiti in every Assembly constituency

  • Delhi government will set up ‘Rogi Kalyan Samitis’ in each Assembly constituency and ‘Jan Swasthaya Samitis’ in state-run dispensaries, poly clinics and mohalla clinics in order to provide support to the health institutions in the national capital. An official order in this regard was issued by Delhi Health and Family Welfare Department on April 26, 2018. As per the order, ‘Assembly Rogi Kalyan Samitis’ will have an advisory role in assisting health facilities, develop and customise strategies. The ‘Jan Swasthaya Samitis’ will be set up as its sub-committee. Each ‘Assembly Rogi Kalyan Samiti’ and ‘Jan Swasthaya Samiti’ will receive Rs 3 lakh as grand-in aid every year.

13) Naveen Patnaik launches Odisha Skills, Dharmendra Pradhan opens 3 facilities

  • On 28th April 2018, Odisha Chief Minister Naveen Patnaik inaugurated ‘Odisha Skills 2018’, the state-level chapter of India Skill competition organised by National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC) in Cuttack, Odisha. The Odisha Skills 2018 coincided with the birth anniversary of the architect of modern Odisha Madhusudan Das. It is a two-day competition. It saw participation from nearly 7000 participants in six sectors and 25 skills from all over Odisha. Union Petroleum and Skill Development Minister Dharmendra Pradhan also inaugurated a skill-cum-common facility centre for filigree craftsman of Cuttack.
  •  He also launched a Pipe-Fitter-City Gas Distribution course that will begin at the Skill Development Institute at Bhubaneswar from 9th May 2018. He also launched the Urja Ganga Gas Pipeline skilling project in Sukinda in Jajpur district.The project will offer training to semi-skilled and unskilled workers involved in the Jagdishpur-Haldia and Bokaro-Dhamra natural gas project. He said that within six months Cuttack will host an International Filigree Exhibition-cum-Workshop.
  • A tripartite MoU was signed between NSDC and Gems and Jewellery Skill Council of India and Edujobs Academy to work for the Cuttack facility, on the occasion. He awarded pre-learning certificates issued by the Skill Development Institute to five goldsmiths. He said that within two years all goldsmiths and filigree artisans of the city will be offered training and certificates.

14) India GDP likely to grow 7.5 pc in FY19: Deutsche Bank

  • As per a report by Deutsche Bank, Indian economy is likely to register Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth of 7.5 per cent in financial year 2018-19. Deutsche Bank’s 7.5 per cent growth forecast for 2018-19, marks an improvement as compared to the likely 6.7 per cent growth in 2017-18.Positive factors leading to higher growth: Improvement in capacity utilisation which should expedite private sector capex recovery, uptick in GST collections due to implementation of e-way bill, bad loans resolution plan and Government’s focus on infrastructure investment. However, higher global oil prices, anticipated rate hike cycle from the RBI and negative impact of the banking sector frauds on credit may pose a challenge to higher growth trajectory.

15) Govt. collects Rs 7.41 trillion from GST

  • As per data provided by Union Finance Ministry, Government has collected Rs 7.41 trillion in taxes in the first year of the Goods and Services Tax (GST) ending March 31, 2018.  Rs. 7.41 trillion collection includes Rs 1.19 trillion of Central Goods and Services Tax (CGST), Rs 1.72 trillion of State Goods and Services Tax (SGST), Rs 3.66 trillion of Integrated Goods and Services Tax (IGST) and Rs 620.21 billion of cess for first eight months and Rs 240 billion addition for March 2018. Tax collected under GST regime is split 50:50 between the Centre (CGST) and the states (SGST) while tax on inter-state movement of goods as well as imports is Integrated-GST (IGST), that accrues to the Centre. Besides, cess levied over/above these taxes on sin and luxury goods is used to compensate revenue shortfall faced by states on account of implementation of GST.

16) IndiGo Chief Aditya Ghosh Resigns

  • Aditya Ghosh resigned as the President and whole-time director of IndiGo and will leave the company by 31 July 2018. While Interglobe Chairman Rahul Bhatia has been appointed as the interim CEO of the company, Greg Taylor will be appointed as president and CEO of the company.

17) Gujarati poet Sitanshu Yashaschandra chosen for 2017 Saraswati Samman

  • K K Birla Foundation has announced that, Gujarati poet Sitanshu Yashaschandra’s poetry collection “Vakhar” has been selected for the Saraswati Samman for 2017. The selection for this award is done by a high level named ‘Chayan Parishad’ (selection committee). It is presided by former secretary general of Lok Sabha, Subhash C Kashyap. This award was instituted in 1991. It recognises outstanding literary work every year written in any Indian language and published in the last 10 years.
  • The ‘Vakhar’ (poetry) by Sitanshu Yashaschandra was published in 2009. Sitanshu Yashaschandra was born in 1941 in Bhuj. He has written 10 books of plays and three books of criticism. He has received Sahitya Akademi Award, Kabir Samman and Padma Shri etc. The Saraswati Samman award carries a cash prize of Rs 15 lakhs, a citation and a plaque.

18) 56th Belgrade International Boxing Tournament in Serbia

  • 56th edition of Belgrade International Boxing Championship was held at Belgrade in Serbia from 24th to 28th April, 2018. Indian boxers won three gold, five silver and five bronze medals at this championship. Among Gold medal winners,  Sumit Sangwan won the final bout by defeating Ecuador’s Castillo Torres in 91 kg category.  Indian woman boxer Nikhat Zareen won Gold medal in 51 kg by defeating Greece’s Koutsoeorgopoulou Aikaterini in the final bout. Himanshu Sharma (49 kg) too won Gold medal by defeating Algeria’s Mohammed Touareg in the final bout.
  • Silver Medal Winners: Jamuna Boro (women, 54kg category) and Ralte Lalfakmawii (women, +81kg), Laldinmawia (men, 52kg category), Varinder Singh (men, 56kg category) and Pawan Kumar (men, 69kg category).
  • Bronze Medal Winners: Narender (men, +91kg category), Rajesh Narwal (women, 48kg category), Priyanka Thakur (women, 60kg category), Rumi Gogoi (women,75kg category) and Nirmala Rawat (women, 81kg category).

19) Budgam shortlisted for PM Modi’s excellence award

  • Budgam district of Jammu and Kashmir has been shortlisted for Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s excellence award for promoting digital payments and cashless economy. Digital payments facility has been implemented at 670 places throughout the Budgam district, under the supervision of District authorities. The places cover 372 ration shops, 285 fertilizer shops and 13 Revenue (Tehsil) offices in Budgam. The district administration has trained local residents at Common Services Centers (CSC) to execute the digital payments system successfully.


1) Kazakhstan introduces 72-hour free transit visa for Indian citizens

  • The Government of Kazakhstan has launched a 72-hour-long transit visa free regime for Indian citizens from 17th April 2018 to 31st December 2018.  Kazakhstan’s Ambassador to India Bulat Sarsenbayev said that, only citizens of India are eligible for this facility who fly with Air Astana (Kazakhstan’s national carrier) or any other Kazakh airline and are transiting through international airports in Astana and/or Almaty to a third country or returning from a third country through Astana and/or Almaty. This 72-hour transit visa free regime is applicable for both individual passengers and tour groups.Discussions are being held with GMR Group that manages infrastructure-related operations at the Indira Gandhi International Airport to offer more space to Kazakh airlines.
  • Statement issued by the embassy says:
    i. In order to ensure the 72-hour transit visa free entry, the Kazakh airlines staff at the check-in desk at the airport in your departure city should be informed.
    ii. If you decide to stay in Astana or Almaty, book hotel in advance and contact Kazakh airline representative office before departure and provide the name of the hotel and its address information.
    iii. After arrival at Almaty or Astana Airport, hand over the following items and register at the border security station of the Kazakhstan National Security Council and get a transit card: Valid air ticket or boarding pass to a third country where you will go within 72 hours, boarding pass receipt of the previous flight, valid passport with at least one blank page in it, visa for the final destination country
    iv. Stay exceeding 72 hours will be fined and will call for deportation.

2) Bhabha Kavach: BARC’s Lightest, Cheapest Bullet Proof Jacket

  • Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) has developed ‘Bhabha Kavach’, a next-generation bulletproof jacket for the Indian armed forces, which is cheaper and much lighter as compared to the ones which are used currently.  Named after nuclear physicist Dr. Homi J. Bhabha, the jacket has been developed at BARC’s Trombay centre, Maharashtra. Bhabha Kavach is made using extremely hard boron carbide ceramics (used for first time in India for making jackets), hot-pressed with carbon nano-tubes and composite polymer. It weighs just 6.6 kg in comparison to the 17-kg jackets in use.
  •  Each Bhabha Kavach costs Rs. 70000, which is almost half the price of jackets of similar strength available in the range of Rs. 1.5 lakh, and that too have to be imported. BARC has made these jackets on request from the Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) and the Ministry of Home Affairs.

3) Mike Pompeo sworn in as US secretary of state

  • Mike Pompeo former CIA Director, has been sworn in as the 70th US secretary of state.  Mike Pompeo was elected as the US secretary of state by the Senate with votes 57-42. He is a former Army officer. As soon as he was sworn in as US secretary of state, the State Department said that, he will visit Saudi Arabia, Jordan and Israel on the weekend after attending a NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) meeting in Brussels on 27th April 2018.

4) Lt Gen Bipin Puri takes over as Senior Colonel Commandant of AMC

  • On 26th April 2018, Lt Gen Bipin Puri took charge as Senior Col Commandant of the Army Medical Corps.
    i. Lt Gen Bipin Puri assumed the appointment of Director General Armed Forces Medical Services (DGAFMS) on 1st November 2017.
    ii. Lt Gen Bipin Puri is a paediatric surgeon. He was awarded the GOC-in-C Commendation in 2010 and the COAS Commendation in 2001 and 2012.
    iii. He was awarded the Vishisht Seva Medal in 2017. He was Honorary Surgeon to The President of India (PHS) from June 2016.
    iv. He was awarded ‘Double Helical’s National Health Awards-2017′ by Indian Medical Association.
    v. The Royal College of Surgeons (Edinburgh) awarded him the Award of Fellowship ad hominem in November 2017.

5) Tourism Ministry launches 360° Virtual Reality (VR) video on Incredible India

  • On April 26, 2018, Union Ministry of Tourism launched a 360° Virtual Reality (VR) experience video on Incredible India. Union Ministry of Tourism has launched this video in collaboration with Google India. This 360° Virtual Reality (VR) experience video on Incredible India takes through a journey across Hampi, Goa, Delhi and Amritsar. The video covers the site-specific as well as the people-aspect associated with these destinations. Tourism Ministry is planning to make more such VR videos available for low/free of cost viewing. Minister of State (IC) for Tourism, Shri K. J. Alphons is hopeful that this initiative will lead to an increase in tourist footfalls at the destinations covered in such VR videos.

6) Government launches Seed import-export portal

  • On April 26, 2018, Union Agriculture Minister Radha Mohan Singh launched a portal to facilitate import-export of seeds and planting material. This portal will help organisations involved in import-export of seeds to do away with the requirement to submit their applications in 20 copies. Besides, the portal will expedite fetching remarks from the different departments which will lead to timely disposal of the applications. Overall, the portal is geared towards making the entire trade related processing, easy and fast. While launching the portal, Mr. Singh stated that with a view to encourage export of seeds, all prohibitions imposed on the export of seeds of different varieties have been removed.

7) India-Nepal IGC Meet Begins In Kathmandu

  • India-Nepal Inter-Governmental Committee (IGC) meeting on trade, transit and cooperation to Control Unauthorised Trade started in Kathmandu, Nepal. The Indian side is led by Commerce Secretary Rita Teaotia. The main focus of the two-day meeting will be on further strengthening trade and investment ties between both the countries. The IGC meeting provides a regular platform to review the implementation of past trade and transit agreements besides discussing new measures to facilitate bilateral trade and investment.

8) India Agrees To Send Buddhist Relics For Vesak In Sri Lanka

  • India has agreed for the most revered Buddhist relics from Sarnath to be taken to Sri Lanka for public exposition on the occasion of Vesak festival. This is the first time relics from Sarnath are being brought to Sri Lanka from India, and special arrangements have been made for this purpose. They will be on public display at Temple Trees in Colombo for four days. This is the second time that India has taken initiative to exhibit the sacred relics of Lord Buddha in Sri Lanka. The first time such initiative was the exhibition of the Kapilavastu Relics in 2012.

9) Bureau of Indian Standards grants first license for Liquid Chlorine on All India Basis

  • Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) has granted first licence for Liquid Chlorine on All India basis to M/s Gujarat Alkalies and Chemicals Ltd. Liquid chlorine is primarily used in paper, pulp, textile bleaching, water sterilization and manufacture of chemicals. As the name indicates, this product is in liquid form, but is used as a gas obtained by evaporating the liquid from a metal container. License granted to Vadodara-based M/s Gujarat Alkalies and Chemicals Ltd.  will be operative with effect from April 12, 2018 for a period of one year. The move will facilitate industry to get a quality Liquid Chlorine with Standard Mark under BIS Certification Marks scheme.

10) Dalmia Bharat Adopts Red Fort, Delhi

  • Dalmia Bharat Limited has signed a MoU with the Tourism Ministry to take up Red Fort and Gandikota Fort (Andhra Pradesh) under the ‘Adopt a Heritage’ project.  Dalmia Bharat Limited has become the first corporate to be part of the ‘Adopt a Heritage’ project. Dalmia Bharat will look after the operations and the maintenance of Red Fort and Gandikota Fort for the next five years.
  • The MoU was signed in the presence of K J Alphons, Minster of State for Tourism (Independent Charge). Through this adoption the corporate will construct, landscape, illuminate and maintain activities regarding development of tourist amenities. Basic and advanced facilities like public conveniences, clean drinking water, and cleanliness of the monument etc. will be established. Also, facilities like App based Multi lingual Audio-Guide, easy accessibility to the differently-abled visitors will be launched.

11) Comprehensive strategy to implement BharatNet in NE: Sinha

  • On 27th April 2018, Union Minister Manoj Sinha said that, the Telecom Commission has approved a comprehensive strategy to implement BharatNet in the North East region. Manoj Sinha said that, as per this Comprehensive strategy, all the uncovered gram panchayats in the North East region, mainly in Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Manipur and Tripura will be connected through broadband connectivity on satellite media by December 2018. The estimated cost for this is Rs 733 crore. 6994 towers will be set up to offer connectivity to 8621 villages and along the national highways at a cost of Rs 5336 crore.  MoU has already been signed between BSNL and USO Fund to establish 2817 towers in Arunachal Pradesh and two districts of Assam.
  • He said that, the work for establishing 2004 towers in 6 states has already been started by Bharti Airtel since December 2017. It will be completed in 18 months. These information were revealed at a meeting that was held to review the implementation of BharatNet and other telecom projects in the North Eastern states. He said that, for Meghalaya, the Telecom Commission has recommended setting up of 2173 towers on 2G+4G technology at a cost of Rs 3911 crore. He added that, to assure reliability and redundancy in the transmission network and expansion of transmission media between state capitals and between state capitals and district headquarters, BSNL will establish 3000 km of OFC (Optical fiber cable) network at a cost of Rs 295.97 crore.
  •  He said that armed forces in the border areas and police will be offered satellite phones to tackle natural disasters and other issues. He also launched mobile connectivity of unconnected villages of North East and satellite connectivity of gram panchayats under BharatNet. He revealed the vision document of “Ashtamangal” Phase II. Phase II of BharatNet and Ashtamangal will be finished by December 2018 or March 2019.

12) H.P. to introduce free heli-ambulance services

  • Himachal Pradesh Government has decided to introduce free Heli-ambulance services in order to help patients in the far flung and inaccessible areas of the State.  Decision in this regard was taken on April 26, 2018, during State Cabinet meeting presided over by Chief Minister Jai Ram Thakur. The free Heli-ambulance services will be operated by Heli-mission Switzerland with the assistance of Lady Willingdon Hospital, Manali in District Kullu. Availability of Heli-ambulance will enable timely air lifting of the patients, particularly from remote and tribal regions of Himachal Pradesh.

13) Google Ranked As Most Trusted Internet Brand In India: Report

  • Online search engine Google is the most trusted Internet brand in India, followed by Facebook, as per the TRA Brand Trust Report 2018. With 1.2 trillion searches per year, Google has become the first port of call for all things on the Internet. Google was followed by Facebook, Amazon and eBay. The biggest falls in trust were seen by Snapdeal, who fell by 142 ranks over last year. The top trust gainers this year were Netflix (up 506 ranks over last year). TRA’s Brand Trust Report 2018 report covers 2488 consumer-influencers across 16 cities in India and generated 5 million data points.

14) CSIR Bags National Intellectual Property Award 2018

  • The Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) is awarded the National Intellectual Property (IP) Award 2018 in the category “Top R&D Institution / Organization for Patents and Commercialization”. Dr Girish Sahni, DG, CSIR and Secretary, DSIR received the award at the hands of Mr. Suresh Prabhu, Minister of Commerce and Industry, at a function organized by the Indian Intellectual Property Office and Confederation of Indian Chambers of Commerce (CII) in New Delhi, to celebrate the World Intellectual Property Day (26th April).

15) Nadiya Shafi has won the 2018’s Martha Farrell Award for Excellence in women’s empowerment

  • Nadiya Shafi, a video reporter from Srinagar, has received 2018’s ‘Martha Farrell Award for Excellence in Women’s Empowerment’, with a cash prize of Rs 1.50 lakh. This award is given in recognition of Nadiya Shafi’s contribution to gender equality and leading gender discussion clubs in Srinagar. The award has been instituted in the memory of Dr. Martha Farrell, an eminent activist for gender equality and women’s empowerment. She was killed in Kabul in a terrorist attack in 2015.
  • The award is co-sponsored by Rizwan Adatia Foundation (RAF) and Participatory Research in Asia (PRIA) and supported by Martha Farrell Foundation (MFF). The ‘best organisation for gender equality’ award, was awarded to Maharashtra-based Resource and Support Centre for Development (RSCD) for promoting inclusion of women in political processes in 30 districts of Maharashtra.

16) Moglix bags SAP ACE AWARD 2018 for Sourcing Excellence

  • On 26th April 2018, Moglix, a B2B commerce company, announced that it has won 11th edition of SAP ACE Awards 2018 in Sourcing Excellence category. SAP India has given this award to Moglix as a recognition to its extraordinary innovative procurement technology. SAP ACE awards recognises excellences in IT innovation in various business sectors, bringing a digital impact in India’s economy. This year, SAP ACE Awards 2018 received more than 300 project nominations in 16 award categories, with focus on large and midsize companies.

17) Gauri became Brand Ambassador for Haryana

  • Haryana State Government has appointed international female shooter Gauri Sheoran as the brand ambassador for its two health-related programmes viz. measles-rubella (MR) vaccination campaign and Rashtriya Bal Swasthya Karyakram (RBSK). Under measles-rubella (MR) vaccination campaign, about 80 lakh children aged between nine months and 15 would be vaccinated.  RBSK involves screening children enrolled in government and government-aided schools and anganwadi centres (AWCs) for detecting deficiencies, diseases, and development delays including disability.
  •  Post screening, children found with any of the above stated deficiencies are referred to the nearest health facility or the District Early Intervention Centre for further treatment. Accomplisments of Gauri Sheoran: won Gold medal in the 7th World University Shooting Championship held in Kuala Lumpur in March 2018, won a bronze medal at the World Championships in Suhl, Germany, clinched two gold and two silver medals in the National Championship at Thiruvananthapuram.

18) Maharashtra government to hold Startup Week

  • On 25th April 2018, the Maharashtra government announced the launch of ‘Startup Week 2018’ from 25th June to 29th June 2018, with an aim to promote entrepreneurial eco-system.  Sambhaji Patil Nilangekar, Minister for Skill Development and Entrepreneurship, Maharashtra, said the startup week will offer new companies a platform to display their innovative products and services to the Maharashtra state government.  Startups from education, skilling, healthcare, agriculture, clean energy, environment, water and waste water management, smart infrastructure, mobility, governance, financial inclusion and cyber security sectors are invited to submit their applications to the Maharashtra State Innovation Society from 25th April to 31st May 2018.
  •  He said that top 100 ventures will be chosen to present their solutions to a panel consisting of members from government, industry, academia and investors.  10 startups from each sector will showcase their solutions to the panel. Best three among them (a total of 24) will be awarded work orders of up to Rs 15 lakh from the Maharashtra State Innovation Society. The chosen start-ups will be given access to the government machinery and will receive mentoring from its institutional partners for 12 months.

19) Shri Ashwini Choubey releases Handbook on Prevention of Accidents and Awareness of First Aid

  • On 26th April 2018, Ashwini Kumar Choubey, Minister of State for Health and Family Welfare released a Handbook on Prevention of Accidents and Awareness of First Aid on the occasion of ‘Road Safety Week’ at an event in New Delhi.  Ashwini Kumar Choubey stressed on the importance of giving medical trauma care to the injured during the first hour of the accident, known as the golden hour. He administered an oath to the officers and staff on road safety. A skit was played highlighting the importance of first aid training and administering of first aid.

20) Manipur’s Shirui Lily festival began

  • Shirui Lily Festival 2018 is being held in Ukhrul district of Manipur from 24th to 28th April, 2018.  The festival commemorates the significance of Manipur’s state flower, the Shirui Lily. Lilium Mackliniae Sealy (locally known as Shirui Lily or Kashongwon) was discovered in 1946 by Frank Kingdom Ward, a botanist from United Kingdom. This flower is found only in Manipur’s Shirui Kashong Peak. Shirui Lily Festival 2018 is the second edition of this festival. It is sponsored by the Manipur State Department of Tourism to spread awareness about conservation of the endangered Shirui Lily and promote the district of Ukhrul as a tourist destination in Manipur. Traditional dances, indigenous games and sports competitions like the Shirui Lily Grand Prix and cultural performances by various cultural troupes from across the state will be the key attractions of this five-day festival.


1) Ward of court – a person who is protected by the High Court, such as a minor.

2) Warrant – is:

  • a certificate which gives the person holding it the right to buy shares at a given price;
  • a magistrate’s written instruction to arrest someone;or
  • a magistrate’s written instruction to search a

3) Warranty – a term in a contract. If the term is not complied with damages can be claimed by the injured party.

4) Way leave – a right of way through or over a piece of land often for a particular purpose, such as for a pipeline to go through a piece of land or for goods to be carried over it.

5) Will – a legal document which people use to bequeath (leave as a gift) money and property when they die.

6) Winding up – disposing of all a company’s assets and paying all its debts. Any money left is then divided among the members.

7) With out prejudice – when written on a document, the document cannot be used as evidence that a contract or agreement exists.

8) Witness – someone who:

  • watches a signature being put on a document,and then signs as well to verify the signature’s authenticity;or
  • attends court to testify about events they know about.

To witness a document is to watch it being signed and then add your own signature and name, address and occupation.

9) Words of art – words which have a fixed meaning in law so that their use in a legal document can have only one interpretation.

10) Writ – an order issued by a court telling someone to do something or not to do something. (This has been known as a ‘claim form’ since April 1999).

11) Writ of execution – a type of writ (‘claim form’ since April 1999) used when a court judgement needs enforcing.

12) Writ of summons – a type of writ (‘claim form’ since April 1999) used to start a civil case in the High Court. (This has been known as a ‘claim form’ since April 1999).

13) Wrongful dismissal – ending an employee’s contract without following the contract’s terms.

14) Wrongful trading – continuing to trade while knowing that there is little prospect of the company being able to pay its debts.


1) 2018 World Press Freedom Index Released: India Falls To 138th Rank

  • India has ranked 138th out of 180 countries in the 2018 ‘World Press Freedom Index’ released by Reporters Sans Frontières (RSF), also known as Reporters Without Borders. India’s 138th rank in the 2018 ‘World Press Freedom Index’ marks a drop of two places as compared to 136th rank in 2017.
    1. Killing of journalist-activist Gauri Lankesh, who was shot down outside her house in Bengaluru in September 2017 has been cited as the main reason behind India’s low ranking on the index. Besides, hate crime has been identified as another issue plaguing India.
    2. Among world’s major powers, Russia retained its position at 148th rank while US slipped to 45th as compared to 43rd rank in 2017. China too retained its spot at 176th.
    3. Among India’s neighbouring countries, Bhutan (94th), Nepal (106th) and Sri Lanka (131st) rank ahead of India. Myanmar, Pakistan and Bangladesh rank 137th, 139th and 146th respectively.
    4. Norway topped the index for second consecutive year, while North Korea at 180th spot remained the most repressive country.

2) Indo-Malaysian Joint Military Exercise ‘Harimau Shakti’ Held

  • As part of ongoing Indo-Malaysian defence cooperation, a joint training exercise Harimau Shakti will be conducted in the dense forests of Sengai Perdik, Hulu Langat, Malaysia. The exercise is aimed at bolstering cooperation & coordination between armed forces of both the nations and to share the expertise of both the contingents in the conduct of counter insurgency operations in jungle terrain.
  • Harimau Shakti is aimed to enhance cooperation & coordination between armed forces of India and Malaysia and to share the expertise of both the contingents. Counter insurgency operations will be conducted in jungle terrain. Indian contingent will be represented by 4 GRENADIERS, one of the oldest infantry battalions. The Malaysian contingent will be represented by soldiers from 1 Royal Ranjer Regiment and the Royal Malay Regiment. This is the first time a joint training exercise of this magnitude comprising Indian and Malaysian soldiers is conducted in Malaysia. Main focus of the exercise will be on tactical operations in jungle warfare. A cross training phase and a field training phase of seven days in the jungles of Hulu Langat will be carried out.

3) Mario Abdo Benitez Elected New President Of Paraguay

  • Mario Abdo Benitez won the presidential election conducted in Paraguay. He belongs to the ruling Colorado Party. He had secured 46.5% of the votes, with 96% of 21,000. Efrain Alegre of the Authentic Radical Liberal Party came second with 42.7% of the votes. Mario Abdo Benitez’s 5-year term begins on 15th August 2018.

4) PM Modi Embarks On 3-Day Visit To China

  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi left on a three-day visit to China. Mr Modi will hold talks with Chinese President Xi Jinping during an informal summit in Wuhan city.  It is expected that the meeting between Mr Modi and Mr Xi will be a milestone in India-China relations. This will be Mr Modi’s fourth visit to China after he came to power in 2014.

5) HRD Ministry Launches 2nd Edition Of Unnat Bharat Abhiyan

  • The Ministry of Human Resource Development, HRD launched the second edition of the Unnat Bharat Abhiyan under which students from 750 higher educational institutions from across the country will adopt villages and visit them to get acquainted with lifestyle of people there and the problems faced by them. The minister advised the students to involve local village people at every stage of problem identification and solving issues relating to health, cleanliness, waste management, plantation, financial inclusion, women and child development.

6) Radha Mohan Singh’s addresses the National Kharif Conference 2018 in New Delhi

  • Union Minister of Agriculture and Farmers’ Welfare, Radha Mohan Singh addressed the National Kharif Conference 2018 in New Delhi on April 25, 2018. While addressing the conference, Mr. Singh outlined that the Central Government is working towards making agriculture policy and programs ‘income-oriented’ rather than ‘production-oriented’.
  • PM Modi’s multi-dimensional seven-point strategy: In order to achieve this objective, government is encouraging the adoption of ‘multi-dimensional seven-point’ strategy suggested Prime Minister Narendra Modi, which includes enhancing irrigation coverage focusing on ‘More crop per drop’, provision of quality seeds, large investments in warehouses and cold chains, promotion of value addition through food processing, Implementation of National Agricultural Markets and e-platforms (e-NAM), introduction of crop insurance and promotion of allied activities such as Dairy-Animal husbandry, Poultry, Horticulture, and Fisheries. Mr. Singh added that farmers should be encouraged to participate in the ongoing Rashtriya Gram Swaraj Abhiyan, in which every block will organize Kisan Kalyan Karyashala on May 2, 2018 wherein Agriculture officers and scientists will discuss ways to increase income through new technology and progressive farmers will also narrate their success stories.

7) Health Minister chairs high level review meeting on control of vector borne diseases

  • On 25th April 2018, J P Nadda, Union Minister for Health and Family Welfare, conducted a high level meeting to review the preparedness of the Ministry for prevention and control of vector borne diseases like kalaazar, dengue, malaria and chickungunya in India. J P Nadda ordered the officials for launching aggressive IEC (Information Education and Communication) campaigns to create awareness on prevention and control of vectors before the season starts. He asked Secretary (Health) to speak to the State Health Secretaries to involve in the prevention and control activities of vector borne diseases. He directed the officials and Nodal officers to visit kalaazar endemic States of Jharkhand and Bihar immediately and report to him by 2ndMay 2018. He asked the officials to organise and complete the Training of Trainers (ToT) for ventilator management for 125 doctors for management of H1NI cases.

8) Commissioning of Third Ship of Landing Craft Utility Mk-IV ‘IN LCU L53’ (GRSE Yard 2094) at port Blair- 25 Apr 18

  • On 25th April 2018, the third ship of the Landing Craft Utility (LCU) Mk-IV project was inducted into the Indian Navy at Port Blair. The ship was commissioned as INLCU L53 by Vice Admiral Bimal Verma, AVSM, ADC, Commander-in-Chief A&N Command. It was designed and built by Garden Reach Shipbuilders and Engineers (GRSE), Kolkata. The ship shows the potential of India’s indigenous ship building capability. It is in line with the ‘Make in India’ initiative. LCU MK-IV is an amphibious ship. It has a displacement of 830 Tons. It is capable of transporting combat equipment like Main Battle Tanks Arjun, T72 and other Armoured Vehicles.
  •  The ship has advanced equipment and advanced systems like Integrated Bridge System (IBS) and the Integrated Platform Management System (IPMS). Indigenous CRN 91 Gun with Stabilised Optronic Pedestal offers offensive capability for undertaking patrolling. The ship is commanded by Lt Cdr Vikas Anand. It has five officers and 45 sailors. It can carry 160 troops in addition. The ships will be based in the Andaman and Nicobar Command. Remaining five ships of the project are in an advanced stage of construction. They will be inducted into Indian Navy in the next year and half.

9) NDMA conducts mock exercise in North East on earthquake

  • On April 26, 2018, National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) conducted a mock exercise on earthquake preparedness in three North Eastern States – Tripura, Nagaland and Mizoram. Conducting such mock exercise was required as these three states fall under seismic vulnerability zone V. The mock exercise helped in filling gaps, ensuring better communication and improving coordination among various stakeholders and agencies that are a part of response mechanism. It also generated awareness among the local people about the Do’s and Don’ts to be followed before, during and after an earthquake. With an objective to improve preparedness and response for various disaster situations, NDMA has so far conducted more than 600 mock exercises for various disaster situations across India.

10) CSIR and DoT sign MoU for nationwide Time Stamping & Time Synchronization network

  • Council of Scientific and Industrial Research -National Physical Laboratory (CSIR-NPL)and Department of Telecommunications (DoT) under Union Ministry of Communications have signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) on technical knowledge sharing for establishing a nationwide Time Stamping & Time Synchronization network. Recording date and time of an event is referred to as time stamping. As per the terms of the MoU, DoT will be setting up Nationwide, Time Stamping & Time Synchronization network consisting of 22 Time Synchronization Centers (TSC’s) with technical assistance from CSIR-NPL.
  • This network will provide synchronizing pulse in Indian Standard Time(IST) to all Telecom & Internet Service providers across India. Synchronizing the telecom network with IST time stamp will enable the security agencies to overcome the difficulty in analyzing and correlating the cyber events and will also improve the telecom network efficiency by reducing the Voice over Internet Protocol (VOIP) call drop. In context of this news, it is important to note that CSIR-NPL is responsible for generating, maintaining and disseminating Indian Standard Time (IST).

11) Indu Malhotra first woman lawyer to become SC judge

  • On 26th April 2018, sources in the Law Ministry said that, the government has cleared the appointment of senior advocate Indu Malhotra as a judge of the Supreme Court, making her the first woman lawyer to become Supreme Court judge. Indu Malhotra will be the first woman judge to be appointed as Supreme Court judge directly from the bar. She is 61 years old. She will be the seventh woman to become a Supreme Court judge. Previously, Justices M. Fathima Beevi, Sujata Manohar, Ruma Pal, Ranjana Desai, Gyan Sudha Misra and R. Banumathi, held the post of Supreme Court judge.

12) PM releases commemorative postage stamp on Hemvati Nandan Bahuguna

  • On April 25, 2018, Prime Minister, Narendra Modi, released a commemorative postage stamp on former Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh, Late Shri Hemvati Nandan Bahuguna. While releasing the commemorative postage stamp, PM Modi mentioned about Mr. Bahuguna’s contributions in the education sector and development in the hilly areas of India. Hemvati Nandan Bahuguna was the 9th Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh. He held office from November 8, 1973 to November 29, 1975.

13) 48th Foundation Day Of HUDCO Celebrated

  • The Minister of Housing & Urban Development Hardeep Singh inaugurated the 48th Foundation Day of Housing and Urban Development Corporation (HUDCO). HUDCO is playing an important role in taking financial inclusion forward in the country, as it is taking care of the housing finance needs of the economically deprived sections.

14) Giant Mosquito Found In China

  • Chinese entomologists have discovered a giant mosquito belonging to Holorusia Mikado species, with a wing size of 11.15 cm in Sichuan province of China. The giant mosquito belongs to the world’s largest mosquito species Holorusia Mikado. It was found in August 2017 during a field trip to Mount Qingcheng in Chengdu. It was first found in Japan and was named by British entomologist John Obadiah Westwood in 1876. The Holorusia mikado species generally has a wing size of nearly 8 cm. These mosquitoes do not feed on blood. They feed mainly on nectar. The adults have a life span of a few days. Holorusia mikado also known as the crane fly are mainly found in the Chengdu plain of the western parts of Sichuan.


1) Vendee – a person who buys something.

2) Vendor – a person who sells something.

3) Verdict – the jury’s decision at the end of a case.

4) Vesting order – away the High Court transfers land without the need for a conveyance.

5) Vexatious litigant – a person who regularly brings court cases which have little chance of succeeding.

6) Vicarious liability – a situation where someone becomes responsible under the law for wrongs done by someone else. This often happens when an employee does something wrong while at work which becomes the employer’s responsibility (such as an employee working negligently and causing someone else to be hurt because of the negligence).

7) Violent disorder – three or more people in a gathering using or threatening to use unlawful violence.

8) Void – unable to be enforced by the law.

9) Voidable –  –  able to be cancelled in certain circumstances.

10) Voluntary arrangement – an agreement between a debtor and the creditors.If a person or a company can not pay their debts when they are due they can come to a voluntary arrangement with the creditors to pay the debts over a period. If the creditors agree with the proposals it avoids bankruptcy of the individual or liquidation of the company.

11) Voluntary manslaughter – Murder and voluntary manslaughter have the same meaning in law. But there are four deference that can reduce the crime in seriousness to manslaughter :

  • Provocation;
  • Diminished responsibility;
  • Infanticide;
  • Suicide.


First of all we would like to congratulate you for taking our first ALL INDIA MOCK and taking the first step towards cracking CLAT 2018. We are glad to present the complete analysis of this test to passionate aspirants like you. Let’s go !!

Total number of questions : 200

Marks per question: 1

Negative marking : 0.25

Highest score: 87

Average score: 62

Cut off for top 3 NLUs : 139

Cut off for next 5 NLUS : 125

Cut off for lower NLUs : 108


Numerical ability 4.25 0.75 3
Logical reasoning 28.5 25.75 16.5
English language 15 13.75 8
General knowledge 46.75 15.5 20
Legal aptitude 33.5 31.25 21




Ashit 0.75 25.75 13.75 15.5 31.25 87
Aayush Raj 1.75 28.5 10.5 23.75 22.5 87
Roshani Sahu 2.75 9 8.25 46.75 18.75 85.5

We congratulate the toppers.


We wish others luck that they get to the topper list in our next edition of FAADU MOCKS.

Next FAADU MOCK # 07 will be conducted next Sunday (29/04/2018).

Until then, it’s ciao from




1) Swaraj co-chairs 6th Joint Committee for Cooperation with Mongolia’s Tsogtbaatar

  • On 25th April 2018, Indian External Affairs Minister Sushma Swaraj led the delegation at the 6th Joint Committee for Cooperation with Mongolian Foreign Minister Damdin Tsogtbaatar. Various aspects of bilateral relations, particularly in trade and investment, energy, mining, animal husbandry, education and capacity building and tourism were discussed in the meeting. This is Sushma Swaraj’s first visit to Mongolia after she became the External Affairs Minister in 2014. She reached Mongolia on 24th April 2018, after finishing her one-day China visit where she attended the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Foreign Ministers’ meeting in Beijing.

2) Government to tie up with US and Finland to jointly develop new pollution-forecast system

  • India is tying up with the United States and Finland to create a pollution-forecast system that will enable anticipation of particulate matter (PM) levels at least two days in advance with a better resolution. Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES) will coordinate this exercise. It has been planned to have the system ready by winter. At present, the System of Air Quality and Weather Forecasting and Research (SAFAR), run out of the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune, is the major forecaster of pollution trends in Delhi, Mumbai, Pune and Ahmedabad.
  •  It generates air quality profile, a day in advance, for these cities. The new system will be jointly developed by Finnish Meteorological Institute and the U.S.’ National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The new system will use a different modelling approach and computational techniques.

3) MOU signed between Indian Culinary Institute and IGNTU, Amarkantak for collaborative degree programmes and research in culinary arts

  • A MOU was signed between the Indian Culinary Institute (ICI), an autonomous body under the Ministry of Tourism, and Indira Gandhi National Tribal University (IGNTU), Amarkantak.  The MOU was signed for introducing collaborative degree programmes including research in culinary arts. ICI has campuses at Tirupati and Noida. The academic courses at Noida campus will start from 2018-19 batch and batches at Tirupati campus will start from 2018-19 academic session. Objective of setting up of ICI was to create a mechanism to support efforts taken to preserve, document, promote and disseminate Indian Cuisine, meet the requirement of specialists in Indian Cuisine, to promote Cuisine as a Niche Tourism product.
  • The ICIs will act as Centres of Excellence which will provide structured regular programmes of study specific to culinary arts and culinary management. They will offer graduate and post graduate level degrees, promote research and innovation, organize demand driven certificate and diploma courses, document and create data base specific to Indian cuisine and commission studies and survey on cuisine. They will offer required training platform equivalent to elite Chef Schools operating in various parts of the world. It will help local youth to train in these streams and create entrepreneurs and make them self-sufficient. The hotel and tourism industry will also get trained and skilled manpower.

4) Important Cabinet Approvals- 25th April 2018

  • The Union Cabinet chaired by Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi has given the following set of approvals. The important Cabinet Approvals are given as follows.
  • The Cabinet has approved-
    1. MoU between India and Sao Tome and Principe for Cooperation in the field of Traditional Systems of Medicine and Homoeopathy.
    2. The Memorandum of Agreement between India and World Health Organisation represented by its Regional Office for South-East Asia acting through its Country Office in India.
    3. MoU on cooperation in the field of regulation of medical products for human use amongst the medicine regulatory agencies of the BRICS countries.
    4. Long-Term Agreements for the supply of iron ore (lumps and fines) to Japan and South Korea through MMTC Limited.
    5. Declaration of Scheduled Areas in respect of Rajasthan under Fifth Schedule to the Constitution of India.
    6. Restructured National Bamboo Mission- An outlay of Rs.1290 crore (with Rs. 950 crore as Central share) is provisioned for implementation of the Mission during the remaining period of 14th Finance Commission (2018-19 and 2019-20).
    7. Minimum Support Prices for Raw Jute for 2018-19 season- The Minimum Support Price (MSP) for Fair Average Quality (FAQ) of Raw Jute has been increased to Rs.3700/- per quintal for 2018-19 season from Rs. 3500/- per quintal in the 2017-18 season.

5) NSE launches e – Gsec platform for bringing retail participation in Govt. Securities

  • On April 24, 2018, The National Stock Exchange (NSE) announced the launch of its e-Gsec platform which will allow retail investors to invest in government securities. Government issues securities in order to borrow money from the market. Government Securities are offered to investors through competitive and non-competitive auctions.  Auction is held by Reserve Bank of India (RBI) on weekly basis, wherein large investors viz. banks, primary dealers, financial institutions, mutual funds, insurance companies participate in the competitive auctions by placing bids directly with Reserve Bank of India (RBI).
  • In the weekly auctions, 5 per cent of the notified amount is allotted for eligible investors under the scheme for non-competitive bidding facility. Through NSE’s e-Gsec platform, the retail investors will now be able to participate in the next weekly auction which is scheduled on April 26, 2018. Allowing retail participation in G-Sec auctions through stock exchanges was first announced in Union budget 2016-17.

6) Jeremy win silver & bronze at Asian Youth and Junior Weightlifting Championship

  • India’s Jeremy Lalrinnunga (56 kg) won a silver and a bronze medal and broke two national records at the Asian Youth and Junior Weightlifting Championship at Urgench, Uzbekistan.  Jeremy Lalrinnunga gave his best total of 250 kg and won the silver in youth section and a bronze medal in the junior section. He is 15 years old. He made national records in youth boys and junior men with 250 kg lift.
  • India’s Sidhant Gogoi won a bronze medal with a lift of 243 kg in youth boys section. Jhilli Dalabehera (48 kg) won silver medal in junior women after lifting 166 kg (73+93), Sneha Soren (48 kg) lifted 145 kg (63+82) and won bronze medal in Youth Girls. Jacob Vanlaltluanga won a bronze medal in the 62kg youth boys with a total lift of 239 kg (108 kg (Silver medal) in Snatch + 131 kg in Clean and Jerk).

7) India’s average GDP growth to rise to 7.8 pc in first half of this year: Report

  • According to the Japanese financial services major Nomura, India’s average Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth is expected to rise to 7.8 per cent in the first half of 2018. As per Nomura, GDP growth of 7.8 per cent in first half of 2018 will come on back of increase in investments as well as consumption demand. However, rising oil prices, tighter financial conditions and a likely slowdown in investment activity ahead of the elections have been identified as factors that may lead to moderation in growth for the second half.
  •  On account of these factors, growth for Q4-2018 is forecasted at 6.9 per cent. Further, Nomura has cautioned that rising oil prices may have a direct bearing on Consumer Price Index (CPI) inflation, wherein every USD 10/bbl rise in oil prices will spike the CPI inflation by 30-40 bps and would worsen the current account balance by 0.4 percentage points.

8) Microsoft India most attractive employer brand: Randstad

  • On 25th April 2018, Randstad Employer Brand Research (REBR) 2018 stated that, Microsoft India is the most attractive employer brand in India this year. Microsoft India is followed by Amazon India. The Randstad Employer Brand Research (REBR) 2018 survey was conducted by Randstad, a HR service provider. The survey also stated that salary and employee benefits remain as major factors among the local workforce in all profiles. On a sectoral basis, Tata Consultancy Services (TCS) ranked as the top employer brand for the IT industry.
  • Larsen & Toubro was ranked as top employer for infrastructure & construction and Hindustan Unilever for FMCG.  The top 10 most attractive employers brands in 2018 also features: Hindustan Unilever, IBM India, ITC Group, Mercedes-Benz India, Samsung India and Sony India. Salary and employee benefits, work-life balance, job security, career progression and strong management are the top five influencing factors for the workforce for selecting an employer. The survey also revealed that workers prefer to work for companies in sectors like IT & ITeS (69 per cent), Automotive (68 per cent) and Retail & FMCG (67 per cent).

9) Malvi’s adder’s-tongue fern: World’s smallest land fern discovered in Western Ghats

  • Indian researchers have discovered world’s smallest land fern in the Ahwa forests of the Western Ghats in Gujarat’s Dang district. Researchers have stated that this fern belongs to a group known as the adder’s-tongue ferns, named after their resemblance to a snake’s tongue. The new Malvi’s adder’s-tongue fern Ophioglossum malviae is just one centimetre in size. However, the most similar adder’s-tongue fern is 10 cm tall. Researchers from Department of Biosciences at Surat’s Veer Narmad South Gujarat University stumbled across this fern during a botanical expedition in 2016. After studying its morphology in detail, researchers discovered that it differed from similar ferns in not just size but other complex fern features viz. composition of seeds and DNA.

10) Sagar Kavach: Coastal security exercise held in Kerala

  • A two-day coastal security exercise ‘Sagar Kavach’ began on April 24, 2018 along Kerala shores. Exercise ‘Sagar Kavach’ is being conducted to strengthen and assess the loopholes in the coastal security mechanism along Kerala shores. Along with Coastal Police and Marine Enforcement wing, Indian Coast Guard and Indian Navy is also participating in Exercise ‘Sagar Kavach’. 10 ships of Indian Coast Guard, three ships of Indian navy, four fishing boats, and 20 coastal police stations from Vizhinjam to Kasaragod are among those taking part in this exercise. It is to be noted that Exercise ‘Sagar Kavach’ is held twice a year.

11) Roll-out of e-Way Bill system for Intra-State movement of goods in Arunachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Meghalaya, Sikkim and Puducherry

  • The e-Way Bill system for Intra-State movement of goods is implemented from 25th April 2018 in Arunachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Meghalaya, Sikkim and Puducherry. e-Way Bill system for ​I​nter-State movement of goods was launched on 1st April 2018. As on 20th April, 2018, e-Way Bill system for ​Intra-State movement of goods has been rolled-out in Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Telangana, Tripura, Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh.
  • Trade and industry and transporters present in the above locations can register on e-Way Bill portal at https://www.ewaybillgst.gov.in

12) M-Awas App For Allotment Of GPRA Through ASA Launched

  • Hardeep Puri, Minister of State for Housing and Urban Affairs (I/C) launched a Mobile App (m-Awas) for allotment of Government accommodations in General Pool Residential Accommodation (GPRA) in Delhi under the control of the Directorate of Estates.The application has been developed by NIC. A total number of 61,317 residential accommodations of various types are available in Delhi which are allotted to the eligible Central Government employees through Automated System of Allotment (ASA), by using login Id and password.

13) Meghalaya launches mission to increase organic turmeric

  • The Meghalaya government has launched ‘Mission Lakadong’ to achieve a five-fold increase in the production of Lakadong turmeric, an organic variety of turmeric grown in Meghalaya, to at least 50,000 metric tonne per year in the next 5 years. On 24th April 2018, Meghalaya governor Ganga Prasad launched ‘Mission Lakadong’. This mission will be implemented by the directorate of horticulture, the Community and Rural Development department, the Forest department, the North Eastern Hill University and the Meghalaya Institute of Entrepreneurship under the direct supervision of the Governor’s secretariat.
  • Objective of ‘Mission Lakadong’ is to improve the livelihood and income of farmers involved in Lakadong turmeric cultivation. The mission also aims to more than double the crop area from the current 2,577 hectare to 6,070 hectare over the next 5 years. Jaintia Hills District is home to Lakadong turmeric. Lakadong turmeric has the highest curcumin content, as per a study by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research. The productivity of Lakadong turmeric will also be improved from 6 MT per hectare to 8 MT per hectare area with the introduction of the advanced technologies of plant propagation and post harvest technology induction.

14) NITI Aayog to Open Applications for Atal New India Challenge

  • The Atal Innovation Mission (AIM) under the NITI Aayog will launch the Atal New India Challenge on 26th April 2018.  The Atal New India Challenge will be run in collaboration with five ministries. Through the Atal New India Challenge, AIM will invite prospective innovators/MSMEs/start-ups to design market-ready products, using advanced technologies or prototypes in 17 focus areas like Climate Smart Agriculture, Smart Mobility, Predictive Maintenance of Rolling Stock, Waste Management etc. Applicants with capability, intent and potential to productize technologies will be granted up to Rs. 1 crore. In addition, mentoring, handholding, incubating and other support will be offered  at various stages of commercialisation, also creating wider deployment for the product.

15) Rs 10012 cr aid given to UP in 2017-18: NABARD

  • National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) has stated that it has provided an assistance of Rs 10012 crore to Uttar Pradesh (UP) during 2017-18. The funds were provided to facilitate overall development in the state with special focus on agricultural credit. Our of the above stated amount, Rs 8450 crore released to commercial banks, Regional Rural Banks and Cooperative Banks for providing short and long term finance support to agriculture, allied and off farm sectors across the state.
  •  Besides, NABARD’s initiatives in Uttar Pradesh during 2017-18 also focused on infrastructure development through dedicated funds, women empowerment through Self Help Groups, strengthening of rural financial institutions and micro-finance. For 2018-19, NABARD’s priorities in Uttar Pradesh will be digital transformation of rural financial institution (RFIs) and rural enterprises, crop residue management in western UP, development plans for Bundelkhand region and setting up irrigation infrastructure.

16) Indus Towers, Bharti Infratel to merge; to create listed pan-India tower juggernaut

  • On 25th April 2018, Indus Towers and Bharti Infratel Ltd announced that, they have agreed to combine operations in a deal that will create the world’s second-largest mobile masts company measured by numbers of towers. The combined company will lag only China Tower. It will still be listed on Indian bourses. It will have a presence throughout India with more than 163,000 towers. Bharti Airtel will have a stake of 33.8 % to 37.2 % in the combined entity. The combined entity will be called Indus Towers. The new Indus Towers board will have 11 members: three members from Bharti Airtel, three from Vodafone, one from KKR or Canada Pension Plan Investment Board and four independent members.


1) Uberrimae fidei – of the utmost good faith.In certain contracts (such as insurance policies) one party must disclose (reveal) any material facts to the other party. If they are not disclosed the contract can be cancelled or become unenforceable. (This term is Latin.)

2) Ultra vires – beyond one’s powers. If an organisation does something ultra vires,what it has done is invalid.

3) Under lease – the lease of a property by a tenant of the property to someone else.

4) Undertaking – a promise which can been forced by law such as a promise made by one of the parties or by their counsel during legal proceedings.

5) Unfair contract terms – prevents a party to a contract unfairly limiting their liability. The Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977 was passed to control unfair exclusion clauses. In particular, in a case where someone had been killed or injured because of someone else’s negligence the act prevented a contract limiting the negligent person’s liability.

6) Unfair dismissal – sacking an employee unfairly.When an employee has been dismissed it is the employer’s responsibility to prove that the dismissal was fair. If an industrial tribunal finds that the dismissal was unfair it can insist on compensation or reinstatement.

7) Unit trust – a trust which manages investments.People can invest in unit trusts by buying units.The managers of the trust use the money people invest to buy investments. The fund manager values the fund’s assets from time to time and puts a new price on the fund’s units.

8) Unlawful wounding – wounding someone without the justification of self defence or without power given by the law.

9) Unliquidated damages – the amount of damages decided by a court because the parties to a contract had not agreed in advance how much the damages would be for breaking the terms of the contract.

10) Unreasonable behaviour – behaviour by a married person that justifies the other partner in the marriage living apart.

11) Unreasonable behaviour Unregistered company – a company which is not registered under the Companies Acts.

12) Unregistered land – land which is not recorded in the registers at HM Land Registry.

13) Unsecured creditor – someone who has lent money without getting any security for the loan.

14) Uterine – describes people who have the same mother but different fathers.


1) ISRO to launch slew of military satellites soon

  • In coming months, Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) will be launching a slew of strategically important satellites, which will help the military to keep an eye on activities of hostile neighbours and safeguard our land and sea borders. In September 2018, ISRO will launch Gsat-7A, for the Indian Air Force (IAF). Gsat-7A will be launched onboard GSLV Mk II rocket and will enable the IAF to interlink different ground radar stations, airbases and Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS) aircraft. Gsat-7A will be similar to Gsat-7 or Rukmini, which was launched on September 29, 2013, for Indian Navy. Rukmini is considered as Indian Navy’s ‘eye in the sky’ as it helps to monitor the Indian Ocean Region (IOR). Another strategically important satellite, Risat-2A will be launched by the end of 2018 onboard PSLV rocket. It is an advanced remote sensing satellite and will boost India’s surveillance capabilities.

2)The World’s 50 Greatest Leaders 2018: Mukesh Ambani Ranks 24th

  • Richest Indian Mukesh Ambani (24th Rank) and human rights lawyer Indira Jaising (20th Rank) have been named by Fortune magazine as the World’s Greatest Leaders of 2018. The Fortune’s 2018 ranking of the 50 Greatest Leaders has architect Balkrishna Doshi. This year’s list is topped by ‘The Students’ of Marjory Stoneman Douglas and other schools of US that witnessed gun violence. This year’s list has the #MeToo Movement, which described the pervasiveness of sexual abuse, at No.3 behind Bill and Melinda Gates (2nd Rank). The list also includes Apple CEO Tim Cook, New Zealand Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern and football coach Nick Saban.

3) Government planning to gift obsolete weaponry to friendly countries

  • In a bid to boost defence cooperation, Indian Government is planning to gift obsolete military equipment to friendly countries. For this purpose, Indian Government has already asked the armed forces to compile a list of obsolete military equipment that can be refurbished at minimal cost and can be gifted to friendly countries. Indian Government is expecting that this strategy may help in creating a base to expand export of newer defence platforms, which have been made in India.
  • Besides, during foreign visits of Indian dignitaries, some countries of the Indian Ocean Region, some African countries, Central Asian Republics and the Asia-Pacific region have projected a requirement for second-hand military equipment for their armed forces on a gift basis. Military platforms that are being considered to be offered as gifts are artillery guns, armoured vehicles, helicopters, naval patrol vehicles and radar systems that are obsolete or nearing obsolescence.

4) Protected Area Permit (PAP) regime: MHA allows foreign tourists to visit Nagaland, Mizoram and Manipur

  • On 24th April 2018, an official announcement stated that, foreign tourists, except those from Pakistan, China and Afghanistan, will now be allowed to visit Nagaland, Mizoram and Manipur. The Home Ministry has decided to relax the Protected Area Permit (PAP) regime from Nagaland, Mizoram and Manipur for five years with effect from 1st April 2018. As per the Foreigners (Protected Areas) Order, 1958, all areas falling between the Inner line and the International Border of some states were declared as protected areas. Currently, the protected areas include whole of Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland and Sikkim, parts of Himachal Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttarakhand and Jammu and Kashmir.
  • Still Citizens from Pakistan, China and Afghanistan are banned from all PAP areas, including Nagaland, Mizoram and Manipur.  According to a circular released on 30th December 2010 by the government, Manipur, Mizoram and Nagaland were excluded from the protected area regime initially for a period of one year from 1st January 2011, subject to certain conditions.  According to the guidelines, a foreign national is not normally allowed to visit a protected or restricted area. He/She will be allowed only if the government is satisfied that there are extraordinary reasons to justify his or her visit. Every foreigner, except a citizen of Bhutan, who wishes to enter a protected or restricted area, should obtain a special permit from an authority having the power to issue such permits.

5) Egyptian Photographer Mahmoud Abu Zeid Wins UNESCO Press Freedom Prize

  • Jailed Egyptian photographer Mahmoud Abu Zeid, popularly known as Shawkan won the 2018 Guillermo Cano World Press Freedom Prize of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization’s (UNESCO). Egypt’s Foreign Ministry strongly warned UNESCO against recognising Abu Zeid, claiming that he faced terror-related charges.

6) Rajnath Singh chairs third meeting of Island Development Agency

  • On 24th April 2018, Union Home Minister Rajnath Singh, chaired the third meeting of the Island Development Agency (IDA) in Delhi. The Island Development Agency reviewed the work done for preparation of Development Plans for identified Islands (4 in Andaman and Nicobar Islands – Smith, Ross, Long, Avis and five in Lakshadweep – Minicoy, Bangaram, Thinnakara, Cheriyam, Suheli). For these Islands, Final Site Suitability Reports have been  made, Carrying Capacity measured and Environmental zoning performed to ensure sustainable development. Amitabh Kant, CEO of NITI Aayog presented details of actions taken in line with decisions taken in earlier meetings.
  • Additional Locations in Islands – 12 in Andaman and Nicobar (North Passage, Cinque, Inglis, Viper, Neil (Bharatpur Beach), Ramnagar Beach, Karmatang Beach, Dhaninallah Beach, Kalipur Beach, Rutland, North Bay and Great Nicobar – B Quarry) and 5 in Lakshadweep (Kalpeni, Kadmat, Agatti, Chetlat and Bitra) have been identified by NITI Aayog for planning projects to create more jobs for the Island people. Community-based tourism will be promoted in order to benefit the Island people. 18 Projects in Andaman & Nicobar and Lakshadweep, have been chosen for implementation.
  •  3 projects in Andaman & Nicobar (in Long, Smith and Ayes Island) and 3 in Lakshadweep (in Suheli, Minicoy and Kadamat) are ready for launch. After implementation of these projects, investment of Rs. 650 crore is expected from private sector. Preference will be given to the local people for employment. It was said that investors’ conference will be held in May 2018.

7) India co-hosts Asia-Pacific Regional Workshop

  • On April 24, 2018, Union Minister for Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Dr. Harsh Vardhan inaugurated the four-day Asia-Pacific Regional Workshop of the UN Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) in New Delhi. This four-day regional Workshop (April 24-27, 2018) is the fourth in a series of UNCCD Workshops held around the world and the first one being co-hosted  by India. Representatives from nearly 40 Asia-Pacific nations are participating in this workshop.
  •  Besides, scientists and academicians from premier scientific and research-based institutions of India and senior officers of Central Government ministries that work closely with the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change to monitor the progress of the Convention in India, are also participating in the Workshop. During the course of this workshop, training will be imparted to delegates from 12 land degradation prone states in India.

8) Two day Secure India Conclave underway in New Delhi

  • Two day Secure India Conclave, organised by Global Counter Terrorism Council began in New Delhi on April 24, 2018. The conclave has been organised keeping in view, Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s vision of ‘New India : Secure India 2018”. Several sessions on internal security situation on Jammu & Kashmir, Left wing Extremism and cyber security, chaired by eminent personnel will be held during the course of this two day conclave. Overall, the conclave will offer insights into prevalent internal security issues of India.

9) First meeting of E-commerce think tank held on April 24

  • First meeting of the think tank set up by the government to deliberate on issues related to e-commerce sector and cross-border digital trade was held in New Delhi on April 24, 2018. The think tank is led by Union Commerce and Industry Minister Suresh Prabhu and comprises officials from ministries of finance, corporate affairs, home affairs and electronics and information technology. Representatives from several industry bodies including Confederation of Indian Industry (CII), Federation of Indian Export Organizations (FIEO), telecom firms including Bharti Enterprises and Reliance Jio, IT fimrs including TCS and Wipro and ecommerce firms including Ola and Makemytrip also took part in this meeting. Key issues discussed at the meeting are cross border data flow, data localisation, non-discriminatory treatment of digital products, protection and disclosure of source code and online consumer protection.

10) India And World Bank Signs Agreement To Improve Rural Road Network In MP

  • India and the World Bank signed a $210 million loan agreement for the Madhya Pradesh Rural Connectivity Project. The Project is expected to improve the durability, resilience and safety of the gravel surfaced rural roads and enhance the capacity of the state to manage its rural roads network. The Project will cover 10,510 km stretch of rural roads in Madhya Pradesh that fall under the Chief Minister’s Gram Sadak Yojana (CMGSY) program.

11) Madras HC, 1st Court In South India To Introduce E-Court Fee Payment Facility

  • The Madras High Court became the first court in south India and overall eighth in the country to introduce e-court fee payment facility. It was jointly launched by Chief Minister Edappadi K. Palaniswami and Chief Justice Indira Banerjee. The new system will enable litigants who file cases in High Court to pay judicial stamp duty to the government through e-stamps, which can be purchased both online and offline. It will pave way for easier and secured way of paying stamp duty.

12) Three-day martial arts competition concludes in Srinagar

  • On 24th April 2018, National Muaythai Federation Cup, a martial arts competition, ended at the Indoor Stadium, Srinagar.  National Muaythai Federation Cup was a three-day martial arts competition. It was organised by Jammu and Kashmir Muaythai Association with the support of Muaythai India National Federation together with Jammu and Kashmir State Sports Council. Male and female martial art players from 15 states of India participated in the competition. This is the first time, this kind of national event of martial arts was held in Kashmir. Muaythai is a combat sport that originated from Thailand. It uses stand-up striking along with many clinching techniques. It is also known as ‘the art of eight limbs’ as it is involves the combined use of fists, elbows knees and shins.

13) Electoral Bond Scheme 2018: Sale of Electoral Bonds at Authorised Branches of State Bank of India (SBI)

  • In the 3rd phase of sale, State Bank of India (SBI) has been authorised to issue and encash Electoral Bonds through its 11 Authorised Branches with effect from 01.05.2018 to 10.05.2018. Government of India notified the Electoral Bond Scheme 2018 as on Gazette Notification No. 20 dated 2nd January 2018. Electoral Bond Scheme 2018 states that, Electoral Bonds can be purchased by a person, who is a citizen of India or incorporated or established in India. A person can buy Electoral Bonds, either singly or jointly with other individuals.
  • Only the Political Parties registered under Section 29A of the Representation of the People Act, 1951 (43 of 1951) and those that have secured not less than 1 % of the votes polled in the last General Election to the House of the People or the Legislative Assembly of the State are eligible to receive the Electoral Bonds. The Electoral Bonds can be encashed by eligible Political Parties only through a Bank account with the Authorized Bank.  Electoral Bonds are valid for fifteen days from the date of issue. If the Electoral Bond is deposited after expiry, payment will not be made to any payee Political Party. Electoral Bond deposited by an eligible Political Party in its account will be credited on the same day.

14) Bengaluru Smart City testing prototype Intelligent Traffic Management Solution

  • Prototype of an intelligent traffic management solution is currently being tested by Bengaluru Smart City jointly with the Electronics City Township Authority (ELCITA), to enhance traffic management. The intelligent traffic management solution will offer traffic information that is unavailable at present. It will improve management of commuter traffic. It captures video from several cameras and processes them through artificial intelligence. Typical traffic management activities like vehicle detection, traffic density estimation and control of traffic lights will be automated for real-time performance.

15) GI tag for Telangana’s Adilabad dokra, Warangal Dhurries

  • Two craft forms from Telangana – Adilabad Dokra, an ancient bell metal craft popular in the tribal regions of Adilabad district in Telangana and Warangal Dhurries, a popular cotton rug – have been issued the Geographical Indication (GI) Registration Certificate by the GI Registry, Chennai.  Adilabad Dokra metal casting products mainly includes bells, idols of local deities, dancing figures, statues, jewellery and many other decorative items.
  • The speciality of Adilabad Dokra is that no two pieces are alike in shape as well as in size thus making it impossible to replicate. ‘Warangal Dhurries’ are famous across the world due to the high degree of craftsmanship involved in its creation. Warangal became famous as Dhurrie weaving centre on account of abundant availability of cotton. Telangana State Handicrafts Development Corporation was able to register both these crafts as Geographical Indications with assistance from Technology Centre of CII.

16) Sunderban Reserve Forest To Get Ramsar Site Status

  • West Bengal government has given its approval to State Forest Department to apply for coveted Ramsar Site recognition under Ramsar Convention to Sunderban Reserve Forest. Now, State Forest Department through Central Government will apply to Ramsar Convention Secretariat. Once it is conferred Ramsar site status, Sundarbans Reserve Forest will be largest protected wetland in the country. There are currently 26 sites in India recognised as Ramsar wetland sites of international importance.

17) Zverer surges to 3rd spot, Nadal stays top in ATP rankings

  • German tennis player Alexander Zverev improved to the third spot in the latest ATP men’s singles rankings released on 23rd April 2018. Alexander Zverev has jumped one position and reached the 3rd rank. He has achieved this feat after he made a semi-final finish in the recent Monte Carlo Masters. Rafael Nadal remains at the top spot. He maintains a lead of 100 points over Roger Federer after winning his 11th Monte Carlo Masters title. He is a 16-time Grand Slam Champion. Croatia’s Marin Cilic is at the fourth spot. Grigor Dimitrov of Bulgaria has obtained 5th rank.
  • The latest ATP top 10 are as follows:
    1. Rafael Nadal
    2. Roger Federer
    3. Alexander Zverev
    4. Marin Cilic
    5. Grigor Dimitrov
    6. Juan Martin Del Potro
    7. Dominic Thiem
    8. Kevin Anderson
    9. John Isner
    10. David Goffin


1) Tangible asset – an asset which can be physically touched.

2) Tangible property – property that physically exists.

3) Tax – money raised by the Government to pay for the services it provides. Some taxes are called indirect because they are part of the price we pay for goods and services, such as VAT. Other tax is called direct because the individual taxpayer pays it. Income tax and corporation tax are examples of direct taxes.

4) Taxable supply – a term for supplying goods and services on which value added tax can be charged. This applies even if the tax rate is 0% at present, because it can be increased if the Government chooses to.

5) Taxation – the levying of taxes.

6) Taxation of costs – the scrutiny of and, if necessary, the lowering of a solicitor’s bill to a client. The scrutiny is done by a court officer.

7) Tax avoidance – reducing tax bills by using legal means.

8) Tax evasion – breaking the law to reduce tax bills, such as by concealing income.

9) Tax point – the date when value added tax arises on goods or services supplied (or made available) to a customer. The tax point should be displayed on invoices. It is not necessarily the same as the date of the invoice.

10) Teeming and lading – a term used to describe attempts to hide the loss of cash received from one customer by using cash from other customers to replace it. This fraud can carry on by using cash from other customers in the same Way.

11) Tenant – a person or organisation granted a lease.

12) Tender – supplying a price for a job. If an organisation asks firms to send in tenders for supplying something, they are asking for firm written offers to do the work to an agreed standard and at a stated price.

13) Tenure – how a piece of land is held by the owner (for instance freehold or leasehold).

14) Term – any of the clauses which form part of a contract.

15) Terra – land. (This word is Latin.)

16) Terrorism – using violence for political purposes.

17) Testament – a will dealing with personal property.

18) Testamentum – another name for a will.

19) Testator – a person who makes a will.

20) Testify – to give evidence.

21) Testimony – the evidence a witness gives in court.

22) Theft – taking someone else’s property dishonestly,with the intention of never returning it.

23) Threatening behavior – using threats, abuse or insults against another person.

24) Timeshare – an arrangement where people can buy a share in part of a property for a period of time in each year. They can use their part of the accommodation each year for the period that is theirs.

25) Title – the right to own something.

26) Title deeds – the documents which prove who owns a property and under what terms.

27) Toll – a payment in return for being allowed to travel over a road, bridge and soon.

28) Tort – doing something which harms someone else. It may result in a claim for damages. (This word is Old French.)

29) Tort feasor – someone who commits a tort.

30) Trademark – a mark which is registered at trademark registries and which is used on products produced by the owner. It is illegal for anyone else to display the mark.

31) Transcript – the official record of a court case.

32) Transferable securities – securities, such as debentures, which can have their ownership changed.

33) Transferee – the person something is transfer red to.

34) Transferor – the person who transfers something to someone else.

35) Treason – the crime of betraying your country such as helping your country’s enemies in wartime.

36) Treasure trove – treasure found in a hiding place and whose owner can not be traced. It belongs to the Crown but the finder and the landowner may get a reward.

37) Treasury – the government department which administers (manages) the country’s finances.

38) Treasury bill – an unconditional promise by the Treasury to repay money it has borrowed for the short term (up to one year), to pay for government spending.

39) Treasury Solicitor – the person who gives legal advice to the Treasury.

40) Trespassing – going on land without the owner’s permission.

41) Trial – an examination of the evidence in a case and the law which applies.

42) Tribunal is:

  • a body set up to act like a court, but outside the normal court system;
  • a forum to hear disputes and with the authority to settle them;
  • a body given power by statute to discipline members of a profession who do not keep to the high standards of behaviour demanded of members of the profession;or
  • a body set up by the members of an association to police the members’actions.

43) Trust – a financial arrangement under which property is held by named people for someone else.

44) Trust corporation – a company which acts as a trustee and holds a trust’s assets.

45) Trust deed – a legal document which is used to:

  • create a trust;
  • change a trust; or
  • control a trust.

46) Trustee – a person who holds property and looks after it on behalf of someone else.

47) Trustee in bankruptcy – a person who administers (manages) a bankrupt person’s estate and pays any available money to the creditors.


1) Iran bans banks from using cryptocurrencies

  • On April 23, 2018, Iran banned the use of bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies by its banks and financial institutions. Ban has been imposed citing concerns that cryptocurrencies can be used for money-laundering and financing terrorism. Central Bank of Iran states that, this decision was taken by government’s money-laundering committee in December 2017, but is now being put into effect.

2) Canada to host the world’s female foreign ministers

  • On 22nd April 2018, Canada’s Minister of Foreign Affairs Chrystia Freeland announced that, Canada will host the world’s female foreign ministers for talks ahead of this year’s UN General Assembly. Chrystia Freeland opened a meeting in Toronto of G7 foreign ministers with a session, co-hosted by EU High Representative for Foreign Affairs Federica Mogherini.
  • Along with male chief diplomats from most of the G7 major industrialized powers, female ministers from Ghana, Ecuador, Panama, Jamaica, Guatemala and Colombia participated.  Chrystia Freeland said that, she and Federica Mogherini had decided to host talks on 21st and 22nd September 2018 ahead of UN General Assembly just for female foreign ministers.

3) India, Finland settle Nokia tax dispute under MAP

  • India and Finland have reached an agreement on the dispute between Indian Income Tax Department and Finnish Telecom firm Nokia, under the Mutual Agreement Procedure (MAP). In March 2013, Indian Income Tax Department issued a tax demand of around Rs 2500 crore on Nokia India for making royalty payments made to its parent company in Finland since 2006.  The tax liability arose as Nokia India had imported software from its head office in Finland. Nokia India showed it as purchase while Indian Income Tax department contested it as Royalty payment. Under India-Finland Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement (DTAA) Royalties attract 10 per cent tax.
  •  At Nokia India’s request, Finland initiated the MAP process under the DTAA in 2013. The process resulted in rectified tax liability of 1600 crore, which Nokia India paid in March 2018, thus bringing an end to the dispute.  Mutual Agreement Procedure (MAP) is an alternate dispute settlement mechanism aimed at resolving outstanding disputes between multi-national companies and local tax authorities arising out of differential pricing treatment.

4) Researchers develop potent molecule to treat chikungunya

  • Researchers from Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Roorkee have discovered a small molecule named “Pep-I” that exhibits good antiviral activity against chikungunya virus. The antiviral activity of Pep-I  molecule was very high.  Nearly 99% reduction in chikungunya virus was seen when 5 microMolar of Pep-I was used. At present, there are no drugs to treat chikungunya and no vaccine to prevent it.  Earlier through structure-based studies of chikungunya virus-specific nsP2 protease, researchers had identified two small molecules: Pep-I and Pep-II, which showed inhibitory activity.
  • Already, Protease inhibitors have been used successfully against HIV and hepatitis C virus.In the recent study, researchers have found that one of the two molecules — Pep-I, has superior antiviral activity against chikungunya virus. It was found to bind to the protein of the virus (nsP2 protease) and prevent the virus from replicating. The study has been published in the journal Biochimie.

5) Scientists identify four bacterial strains to remove sulphur from fossil fuels

  • Scientists have successfully removed sulphur from fossil fuels such as petroleum and coal using novel bacterial strains. Sulphur is one of the major pollutants released during the combustion of fossil fuels. The research was carried out by scientists from CSIR-Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology (CSIR-IMMT) in Bhubaneswar. They used four bacterial strains: Rhodococcus rhodochrous, Arthrobacter sulfureou, Gordonia rubropertinita and Rhodococcus erythropolis.
  • These bacterial strains use dibenzothiophene (an organic sulphur compound which is a major contaminant of fossil fuel) as an energy source. This eliminates the sulphur content. The bacteria were grown in a medium provided with dibenzothiophene and other nutrients necessary for growth. It was observed that the four bacteria were able to use almost 99% of the sulphur compound in just 10 days. A paper regarding this was published in the journal PLOS ONE. This process is eco-friendly and economical.

6) Diu Smart City becomes first to run on 100% Renewable Energy during Daytime

  • Diu Smart City has become the first city in India to function on 100% renewable energy during daytime. Diu was importing 73% of its power from Gujarat until 2017. Diu has now adopted a two-pronged approach. According to that, a 9 MW solar park has been se t up in 50 hectares and solar panels have been installed on the roof tops on 79 government buildings accounting to 1.3 MW power generation annually. In a move to further increase the solar capacity, Diu provides a subsidy of Rs 10,000-50,000 for its residents to install 1-5KW roof top solar panels. Diu is saving nearly13,000 tonnes of carbon emissions annually. Due to low-cost solar energy, power tariffs have been reduced in residential category by 10% in 2017 and 15% in 2018.

7) Indian airports get their first woman firefighter

  • Taniya Sanyal from Kolkata has become the first woman firefighter appointed by Airports Authority of India (AAI). Taniya Sanyal, who has done masters in Botany, has been appointed for AAI’s eastern region airports. Post completion of training at Kolkata firefighting centre, she may be posted at any of the eastern region airports that include Kolkata, Patna, Bhubaneswar, Raipur, Gaya and Ranchi. 
  •  As having fire service is a mandatory condition for planes to land anywhere, AAI currently has 3310 fire fighters posted at different airports across India. Physical standards for selection of male firefighters is minimum height of about 1.6 metres and minimum weight of 50 kg. In order to recruit women,  AAI relaxed these physical standards norm. However, the work description for male as well as female firefighters remains the same.

8) India to join countries having Sex Offender database

  • On April 21, 2018, Union Cabinet stated that India will now maintain a database of sexual offenders to monitor and track those individuals convicted of such crimes.  In India, the sexual offender database will be maintained by National Crime Records Bureau. Across the world, only eight countries viz. US, Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, South Africa, Trinidad and Tobago and the United Kingdom have sexual offender database. Only in US, the registry of convicted sex offenders is public, while in other seven countries it is maintained purely for the consumption of the law enforcement authorities. However, it has not been clarified whether, Indian database will be made public or not.

9) Government approved death penalty for rapists

  • On 21st April 2018, the central government approved an ordinance to amend the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act to provide death penalty for the rape of children below the age of 12 years. This move has been made after the recent Kathua rape-and-murder case where the victim was only 8 years old and few other rape cases that followed, where the victims were minors.
  • Rape of women: Minimum punishment has been increased from imprisonment of 7 years to 10 years, extendable to life imprisonment.
  • Rape of a girl under 16 years of age: minimum punishment has been increased from 10 years to 20 years, extendable to imprisonment for rest of life.
  •  Gang rape of a girl under 16 years of age: imprisonment for rest of life of the convict.
  •  Rape of a girl under 12 years: minimum 20 years of imprisonment or imprisonment for rest of life or with death.
  •  Gang rape of a girl below 12 years: punishment will be imprisonment for rest of life or death sentence.  It has been declared that investigation of a rape case has to be mandatorily completed within 2 months.
  • Trial of a rape case has to be completed in 2 months. Time limit of 6 months has been mentioned for disposal of appeals in rape cases.
  • It has been declared that there will be no provision for anticipatory bail for a person accused of rape or gang rape of a girl under 16 years. Also, court has to give notice of 15 days to Public Prosecutor and the representative of the victim before deciding bail applications in case of rape of a girl under 16 years of age.

10) Paytm Payments Bank registers 100M KYC wallets

  • On April 23, 2018, Paytm Payments Bank announced that it now has over 100 million KYC wallets. Paytm stated that it was able to accomplish this feat on account of a constant campaigning highlighting about the benefits of the Know Your Customer (KYC) system. Besides, it also introduced Paytm KYC centers and ‘Paytm-Ka-ATM’ outlets to offer localised support. All customers who complete full KYC, get a choice to open a zero-balance account with Paytm Payments Bank.

11) World Bank group approves massive USD 13 billion increase in paid-in capital

  • On 21st April 2018, the World Bank Group approved USD 13 billion increase in paid-in capital, as part of a series of internal reforms. The package approved by the Development Committee of the Board of Governors consists of USD 7.5 billion paid-in capital for International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and USD 5.5 billion paid-in capital for International Finance Commission (IFC), through both general and selective capital increases.
  • It also includes a USD 52.6 billion callable capital increase for the IBRD. The boost in capital will be supported by various internal measures like operational changes and effectiveness reforms, loan pricing measures, and other policy steps. Following this decision, the combined financing arms of the World Bank Group are expected to reach an average annual capacity of nearly USD 100 billion between fiscal 2019 and fiscal 2030.

12) India receives $69 billion remittances in 2017; retains top slot

  • On 23rd April 2018, the World Bank said that, India has retained its position as the top remittances receiving country with its people who have immigrated to various countries sending nearly USD 69 billion back home in 2017. Remittances to India increased sharply by 9.9 per cent to USD 69 billion in 2017. It reversed the previous year’s decrease, but was still short of USD 70.4 billion received in 2014. In 2015, India received remittance of USD 68.91 billion. It reduced to USD 62.74 billion in 2016.  The World Bank has said in a report that, payments from immigrants back to their home countries reached a new record in 2017 but the costs of transferring funds also have increased.
  • The report stated that, the recovery in remittances was driven by growth in Europe, Russia, and the United States. The increase in remittances was also helped by higher oil prices and a strengthening of the euro and ruble. India is followed by China (USD 64 billion), the Philippines (USD 33 billion), Mexico (USD 31 billion), Nigeria (USD 22 billion), and Egypt (USD 20 billion) in the remittance inflow. World Bank estimated that officially recorded remittances to low- and middle-income countries reached USD 466 billion in 2017, an increase of 8.5 per cent over USD 429 billion in 2016. Global remittances, which include flows to high-income countries, grew 7 per cent to USD 613 billion in 2017, from USD 573 billion in 2016. World Bank has said that, remittances are expected to continue to increase in 2018, by 4.1 per cent to reach USD 485 billion. Global remittances are expected to grow 4.6 per cent to USD 642 billion in 2018.

13) Suresh Kumar assumes additional charge as Coal India CMD

  • On 23rd April 2018, Suresh Kumar took the additional charge as chairman and managing director of Coal India Ltd. Suresh Kumar is an additional secretary with the Coal Ministry. He has replaced Gopal Singh as chairman and managing director of Coal India LtdGopal Singh had succeeded Sutirtha Bhattacharya who retired from the post of Coal India CMD on 31st August 2017.

14) Tata Sons appoints ex-foreign secretary Jaishankar as global corporate affairs head

  • On 23rd April 2018, former Indian Foreign Secretary S. Jaishankar was appointed as the new president of Tata Sons’ global corporate affairs. As president of Tata Sons’ global corporate affairs S. Jaishankar will be responsible for the group’s global corporate affairs, international strategy development, and functioning of the company’s international offices. He will report to Tata Sons Chairman N. Chandrasekaran. He had joined the Indian Foreign Service (IFS) in 1977. He has served as High Commissioner to Singapore, Ambassador to China and the United States.  He was India’s foreign secretary from January 2015 to January 2018.

15) Indian women make a clean sweep at 8th South Asian Judo Championship in Nepal

  • Indian women have made great start at 8th South Asian Judo Championship in Lalitpur, Nepal.  On 21st April 2018, (first day of championship) Indian women made a clean sweep and won all 4 gold medals. India’s L. Sushila Devi won the first gold medal for India in minus 48 kg category. She defeated Humaira Ashiq of Pakistan in the final.  India’s Kalpana Devi Thoudam also won gold in minus 52 kg. She beat Maryam of Pakistan. In minus 57 kg category India’s A. Anita Chanu won gold medal by defeating Lila Adhikari of Nepal. India’s H. Sunibala Devi defeated Phupu Lhamu Khatri of Nepal in minus 63 kg category and won gold medal. In men’s section Pakistan won two gold and Nepal secured one gold medal. India won two bronze medals.

16) AFSPA Removed From Meghalaya

  • The Union Home Ministry completely revoked the controversial Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSPA) from Meghalaya while diluting it in other regions of Arunachal Pradesh. Until September 2017, 40% of Meghalaya was under AFSPA. However, after a recent review in consultations with the state government, AFSPA was removed completely from Meghalaya. Similarly, AFSPA is now applicable only in 8 police stations in Arunachal, down from 16 police stations in 2017.

17) Rafael Nadal Win 11th Monte Carlo Masters Title

  • Rafael Nadal of Spain has won the 11th Monte Carlo Masters title by defeating Japan’s Kei Nishikori in final to retain the world number one ranking. He has become the first male tennis player in the Open Era to win the same title 11 times in his career with his 76th ATP Tour title. Nadal also overtook Serbia’s Novak Djokovic to clinch most Masters 1000 titles (31).

18) Winners Of ‘1st Print Biennale India 2018’ Given Away Awards In New Delhi

  • Lalit Kala Akademi, organised the award ceremony of the ‘1st Print Biennale India 2018 (PBI)’ in New Delhi. The Chief Guest of the programme was Ms Sujata Prasad, Additional Secretary, Ministry of Culture. Arup Kumar Kuity (Andhra Pradesh), Satya Narayana Gavara (Andhra Pradesh), Preya Bhagat (Uttar Pradesh), Purvi Parmar (Gujrat) and Sonal Varshneya (Uttar Pradesh) were given the award in the 1st PBI.

19) Nitin Gadkari inaugurates 29th Road Safety Week in New Delhi

  • On 23rd April 2018, Union Road Transport Minister Nitin Gadkari inaugurated the 29th Road Safety Week at Vigyan Bhawan in New Delhi. He administered Road Safety oath. He released a short story collection on road safety theme named “Have a safe journey” .The Transport Ministry organizes the Road Safety Week every year to create awareness on road safety and improve road safety. Road Safety Week is organized from 23rd to 29th of April 2018. This year’s focus is on schools and commercial drivers.
  •  Nitin Gadkari presented awards to fifteen school children who won the national level essay competition on road safety. The top three winners were given cash prizes of Rs 15,000, Rs 10,000 and Rs 5,000 and certificates. He released a paper on road safety by Indian Road Safety Campaign (IRSC).IRSC organizes an annual road safety championship called Safer India Challenge in collaboration with the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways. The Safer India Challenge’18 was also launched at the event.


1) Sale or return – an arrangement under which goods can be kept by the potential buyer for a period while their resale is attempted.Unsold goods can be returned if the conditions of the contract have been kept to and the buyer pays for the goods used.

2) Salvage – compensation paid by the owners for saving ships, aircraft and property from the sea.

3)Satisfaction is: Scheme of

  • paying a debt;
  • settling an obligation by an act;or
  • settling an obligation by substituting something satisfactory for what was

4) Arrangement – an agreement between a person with debts, who cannot pay them when they are due, and the creditors. The creditors share the money the debtor manages to pay in proportion to what they are each owed.

5) Scrip – a certificate showing the extra shares and fractions of shares the owner is entitled to.

6) Scrip dividend – a dividend paid in shares instead of cash.

7) Scrip issue – free shares offered to the members of a company in proportion to the share holdings.

8) Search – inspection of the registers maintained by organisations such as the Land Registry. When a person in tends to buy a property such as a house,a solicitor arranges the inspection. This is to find out if there is any adverse information about the property or the surrounding area.

9) Search warrant – a warrant issued by a magistrate, or High Court judge,to allow police officers to search premises.

10) Securities – stocks, shares, debentures and so on where there is a right to receive interest or dividends from the investment.

11) Security – something of value pledged to a bank by a borrower. If the borrower fails to repay the debt, the bank can sell the security and repay the debt out of the proceeds of the sale.

12) Security of tenure – protection from a landlord attempting to obtain possession of the property the tenant is renting.

13) Sedition – writing things or saying things which encourage ordinary people to rise up against the Government or which cause discontent.

14) Sentence – the penalty the court imposes on someone found guilty of an offence.

15) Separation order – a court order that a husband and wife can live separately if they wish.

16) Sequestration – a court order for the seizure of someone’s property.

17) Settle – means:

  • to create a settlement;
  • to end a case by agreement;or
  • to draw up a contract and agree its

18) Settlement – when property is bestowed, usually by a will or a deed, on a trust for the benefit of people decided by the settlor. It also means voluntarily agreeing to settle a civil case.

19) Settlor – the person who gives property to a settlement.

20) Several – separate (not joint).

21) Shadow director – a person who has not been appointed a director of a company but nevertheless gives instructions to the directors, which they comply with.

22) Share capital – the money invested directly in a company by its members. When the shares are first made available by the company, people can apply to buy them. The company states the price it wants for the shares.

23) Share certificate – a document which certifies who owns shares in a Company. It gives the type and number of shares owned by the shareholder and lists the serial numbers of the shares.

24) Share premium Account – an account in a set of books recording the extra amount over face value that shares have been issued for. If shares are issued for more than their face value, the extra amount over face value is called a share premium.

25) Sheriff – someone appointed each year by the Crown to be a county’s senior officer. Each county in the UK has a sheriff. To be eligible for the office the person must own some land in the county. The areas of the law which come within the sheriff’s jurisdiction are largely dealt with by the under – sheriff.

26) Shoplifting – stealing goods from a shop.

27) Short hold tenancy – a tenancy under which the law allows the landlord to repossess the house.

28) Sine die – indefinitely. If a case has been adjourned sine die no date has been set for it to be continued.(This term is Latin.)

29) Slander – saying something untrue about a person or doing something, such as making a gesture, which damages their reputation.

30) Small claims court – a section of the county court which deals with small claims. There is a simplified way of making a claim in the county court in a civil case where the claim is for no more than £5000 (or £1000 in personal injury cases). Neither side can claim costs.

31) Smuggling – importing or exporting goods illegally to avoid a ban on them or to avoid the duties on them.

32) Sold note – a note that shows details of investments which have been sold, including the sale price and any charges taken. Stockbrokers produce sold notes for their clients.

33) Soliciting – a prostitute attempting to get clients in a street or other public place.

34) Solicitor – a person who can deal with legal matters for the public and give advice on legal matters. All solicitors are listed on the roll of solicitors kept by the Law Society. Some solicitors can appear for their clients in some of the lower courts.

35) Solicitor General – the assistant of the Attorney General. They both advise the Government.

36) Special resolution – a resolution which must be approved by holders of at least 75% of the shares with voting rights. (Some types of share give their owners the right to vote at shareholder meetings, but there are other types which do not.)

37) Specific performance – a court order to complete a contract.The courts may order a person who has failed to fulfill an obligation under a contract to complete it.

38) Spent conviction – a conviction which, after the passage of a stated time period, does not have to be disclosed (revealed) to a court.

39) Squatter – a person who occupies land illegally.

40) Stalking – the name given to a form of harassment where a person is made to feel alarmed or distressed by another person’s actions. The prosecution has to prove that a reasonable person would have known that the behavior would create distress or fear.The harassment must have happened on at least two occasions.

41) Stamp duty – a tax on the transfer documents for certain types of transaction. Examples are buying shares, patent rights and properties.

42) Statement of claim – the claimant’s written statement setting out the claim in a civil case. (This term has not been used since April 1999.)

43) Status – how the law regards a person,such as whether the person is a minor or a bankrupt and soon.

44) Statute – an Act of Parliament.

45) Statute book – all the existing statutes in a country.

46) Statute law – the law created by Acts of Parliament.

47)Statute of limitation – a statute which sets out the time limits within which a court action must take place.

48) Statutory accounts – company accounts which have been filed with the Registrar of Companies. The accounts have to disclose (show) the information required by the Companies Acts.

49) Statutory audit – an audit required by law. Certain companies have to have their accounts audited by suitably qualified accountants.

50) Statutory books – books of account which companies must keep by law to show and explain all their transactions.

51) Statutory demand – a written demand for payment of a debt of more than £750.

52)Statutory instrument – a power delegated by Parliament. Parliament can delegate its power to make and amend law to a person or organisation. A statutory instrument is one of these powers and is used by government ministers to amend legislation.

53) Stay of execution – the suspension of the carrying out of a court order.

54) Stipendiary magistrate – a magistrate who gets a salary.

55) Stockbroker – a person who buys and sells stocks and shares for clients.

56) Sub duct – to withdraw.

57) Subject to contract – an agreement which is not binding until a contract has been signed.

58) Subjudice – describes something being dealt with by a court which cannot be discussed outside the court.(This term is Latin.)

59) Subpoena – a writ requiring the person it is addressed to to attend at a specific place (such as a court) on a specific date and at a stated time.

60) Subrogation – substituting one person for another including all rights and responsibilities.

61) Subscribers – the people who set up a limited company.

62) Subsidiarity – subsidiary activities. Member countries of the European Community agreed that activities could be done by the individual member countries unless they could not do them adequately alone. The European Community therefore should only do subsidiary activities and this is called subsidiarity.

63) Subsidiary – An enterprise controlled by another (called the parent) through the ownership of greater than 50 % of its voting stock. See also affiliate.

64) Sue – to start legal proceedings in the civil court against someone.

65) Suicide – the act of killing one self intentionally.

66) Sui generis – describes something that belongs in a particular category or is the only one of its class.(This term is Latin.)

 67) Sui juris – describes someone who can enter into a contract without any restriction. (This term is Latin.)

68) Suit – proceedings brought by one person against an other in a civil court.

69) Summary judgement – obtaining judgement without a trial.In an action in the High Court to recover damages or a debt, if the claimant (‘plaintiff’ before April 1999) swears an affidavit that it is believed that there is no defence to the claim, the claimant (‘plaintiff’ before April 1999) can obtain summary judgement.

70) Summary offence – an offence that can only be tried by magistrates. Most minor offences are summary offences.

71) Summary proceedings – a trial by magistrates, where the defendant has the right to choose which court should hear the case, but has agreed to be tried in the magistrates’ court.

72) Summary trial – a trial by magistrates.

73) Summing up – the judge’s summary of a case. At the end of a trial by jury the judge explains points of law in the case to the jury, explains the jury’s role and summaries the evidence.

74) Summons – an order by a court that a person attend at a particular court at a stated time on a particular date.

75) Superior courts – the higher courts in English law,which include the High Court, the Court of Appeal,the Crown Court and the House of Lords.Their decisions act as precedents for the lower courts to follow.

76) Supervision order – a court order that a child should be supervised by a probation officer or a local authority.

77) Supra – above (see above or before in the document). (This word is Latin.)

78) Supreme Court –  –the highest court in the UK, the Supreme Court is the final court of appeal for both civil cases in the UK, and for criminal cases in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.

79) Surcharge – a penalty  charged if tax is paid late. It is also an extra charge banks make if customers do not keep to the agreements they made with the bank.

80) Surety – someone who takes responsibility for someone else’s debts or promises, and guarantees that they will be paid or undertaken (done). It is also the name for the money put up as security that someone will appear in court. If they do not appear in court the money will be forfeited.

81) Suspended sentence – a sentence that is postponed until the offender is convicted of another offence.

82) SWIFT payment – a payment from one bank account to another using the SWIFT system. SWIFT stands for Society for Worldwide Inter bank Financial Telecommunications and it is an international system for paying by credit transfer.


1) World Earth Day – April 22

  • Earth Day is observed every year on April 22. It was first celebrated in 1970. The founder of Earth Day is Gaylord Nelson, a US senator from Wisconsin. Nelson, who had been witnessed the devastation caused by an enormous oil spill in Santa Barbara, California in 1969. It is dedicated to providing the information and inspiration needed to fundamentally change human attitude and behavior about plastics. The importance of Earth Day is to increase the awareness among common public, especially among youngsters, to get full effect of the campaign of environmental safety.

2) Malaria Summit held in London

  • A high-level Malaria Summit was held in London, UK on April 18, 2018 to step up action and announce new commitments in the fight against Malaria. The summit was hosted by ‘Malaria No More’, a non-profit organization that aims to end death caused by malaria, and was Co-hosted by the Government of the United Kingdom and leaders of Rwanda and Swaziland. The Summit was held alongside 25th Commonwealth Heads of State and Government Meeting (CHOGM) meeting in London. The Summit served as a platform to secure collective commitments of US$ 4.1 billion from governments, the private sector, philanthropists and international organizations.
  • Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the co-convener of the summit, committed additional USD 1 billion through 2023 to fund research and development efforts in the malaria fight. Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease caused by parasitic protozoans belonging to the Plasmodium type. It is most commonly transmitted by an infected female Anopheles mosquito. 216 million Malaria cases were reported in 2016, across the world.

3) Syria returned prestigious Legion d’honneur

  • Syria has returned to France the prestigious Légion d’honneur presented to its President Bashar al-Assad. Syria has returned the award citing the reason that It is no honour for its President to wear the award given by a country that is a ‘slave’ to America. Syria returned the award to France via the Romanian embassy in Damascus. Last week France joined the US and UK in launching airstrikes at chemical weapons in Syria following the alleged use of poison gas by Bashar’s forces on citizens in a rebel-held enclave outside the capital.
  • Established in 1802 by Napoleon Bonaparte, Légion d’honneur is the highest French order of merit for military and civil merits. The order is divided into five classes and Bashar was decorated with the highest class ’the grand-croix’, in 2001 after he took power in Syria following the death of his father.

4) Commonwealth countries unanimously agree to take action on cybersecurity by 2020

  • Leaders of 53 Commonwealth countries have unanimously agreed to work closely to evaluate and strengthen their cybersecurity frameworks and response mechanisms by 2020. Announcement in this regard  was made through a landmark declaration at the end of 25th Commonwealth Heads of Government meeting (CHOGM), held on 19th and 20th April, 2018 in London, UK.
  • United Kingdom (UK) Government has pledged up to 15 million pounds to help the Commonwealth nations strengthen their cybersecurity capabilities. The strengthening measures are also aimed at tackling criminal groups and hostile state actors who pose a global threat to security. At 25th CHOGM, the leaders also adopted a six-point connectivity agenda to boost trade and investment links across the Commonwealth and agreed to take bold, coordinated action to protect oceans from the effects of climate change, pollution and over-fishing.

5) Kyrgyzstan forms new government headed by president ally

  • Kyrgyzstan’s new President Sooronbay Jeenbekov has dismissed the republic’s cabinet of ministers headed by Prime Minister Sapar Isakov, the Kyrgyz president’s press service. On April 19 the Kyrgyz MPs voted to express no confidence in the government. The motion was backed by 101 MPs, and five people voted against it.

6) North Korea halts all nuclear tests and missile launches as Trump hails ‘big progress’

  • North Korea halts missile and nuclear tests, a pledge made by leader Kim Jong-un ahead of a meeting with Donald Trump. All other countries have welcomed this decision. North Korea has conducted all six of its nuclear tests at Punggye-ri test site in the country’s north-east. It tested its first nuclear weapon in 2006, while its last and most powerful test came last September 2017.
  • South Korea’s presidential office welcomed the announcement as “meaningful progress” towards denuclearisation. “It will create a very positive environment for the success of the upcoming inter-Korean and North-US summits. The two countries are due to hold a summit on the southern side of the demilitarised zone.The meeting is to be followed in May or June by a meeting between Kim and Trump.

7) Charles to succeed Queen as Commonwealth Head: Reports

  • On April 20 2018, Prince Charles was confirmed as the successor to Queen Elizabeth as head of the Commonwealth at a meeting of the group’s heads of government in Windsor at Buckingham Palace in London, Britain. The Commonwealth evolved out of the British empire in the mid-20th century, and the queen has been its head since her reign began in 1952. This week’s Commonwealth summit has seen thousands of delegates from across the globe descend on London, debating issues such as the environment, women’s rights and trade. The biennial meeting, taking place in Britain for the first time in 20 years . The next summit is due to be held in Malaysia in 2020.

8) PM Modi’s 3-Nation Tour Of Europe: Important Highlights

  • Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi was on the three-nation visit of Europe to Sweden, the UK and Germany. He has signed various important agreements and attended various conferences during the visit. Following are the important highlights regarding the 3-nation visit of PM Modi.
  • UK Joins International Solar Alliance to Mark Narendra Modi Visit- The United Kingdom joined the India-led International Solar Alliance (ISA) ahead of Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s visit to Britain. At an event held at the London Stock Exchange as part of the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting 2018 (CHOGM), Britain formally announced its membership of the alliance, which aims to raise $1 trillion of private and public finance to provide affordable and sustainable energy for all by 2030.
  •  Modi in Sweden on 1st leg of 3-nation visit:- 
    i. PM Modi left for Sweden on the first leg of his three-nation tour of Europe. This was the first prime ministerial visit from India to Sweden in 30 years after the visit of Rajiv Gandhi in 1988. Modi held a bilateral summit with Swedish Prime Minister Stefan Lofven.
    ii. India and Sweden also co-host the first ever India-Nordic Summit, where the Prime Ministers of the other four Nordic countries of Denmark, Finland, Iceland and Norway were present. PM Modi held a roundtable with top Swedish CEOs . Companies in Sweden, the largest Nordic economy in Europe has committed a fresh 1.1 billion dollars investment in India. He Signed various agreements with Sweden, Denmark and Iceland.
  • Modi in the UK on 2nd leg of 3-nation visit:- 
    i. PM Modi addressed the world in a globally broadcast live event called ‘Bharat Ki Baat, Sabke Saath’ from the iconic Central Hall Westminster in London.  PM Modi and 52 other leaders attended the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM) at the Buckingham Palace in London.  He joined other heads of government for the leaders’ retreat at Windsor Castle, which concluded the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM) in the UK.
    ii. PM Modi also held bilateral talks with his British counterpart Theresa May. Counter-terrorism cooperation was the main agenda of discussion. Modi and May agreed to take “decisive and concerted actions” against terrorism in all its manifestations. Mr Modi also paid floral tributes at the bust of 12th-century Lingayat philosopher and social reformer Basaveshwara at Albert Embankment Gardens on the banks of the river Thames.  At the special invitation extended by Prince Charles, Modi became the first Indian PM to attend the event in a decade.
  •  Modi in Germany on 3rd and last leg of 3 nation visit:- 
     Prime Minister Narendra Modi held bilateral talks with German Chancellor Angela Merkel in Berlin and discussed ways to further strengthen the strategic partnership between the two countries. It was third and the last leg of Modi’s three-nation tour to the UK, Sweden and Germany. The PM arrived in Delhi from Berlin.

9) 6 Countries Suspend Membership In UNASUR Regional Bloc

  • Bolivian Foreign Minister Fernando Huanacuni has announced that Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Paraguay and Peru had decided to temporarily leave the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR), given differences over choosing the secretary general of the group. A South American bloc created a decade ago to counter US influence in the region has temporarily lost half its members after six countries suspended their memberships amid differences over who should lead the group.

10) TCS inches closer to become first Indian company with $100 bn market cap

  • On April 20 2018 , TCS moved closer to the USD 100 billion mark in market capitalisation as its share price surged nearly 7 per cent , adding about USD 6.2 billion to its valuation. This has taken its market capitalisation (m-cap) to over Rs 6.50 lakh crore or around $98 billion. With this, the IT major emerges as the first Indian company with a market capitalisation of close to $100 billion. On NSE, shares of the company surged 6.54 per cent to its one-year high of Rs 3,399.90.The stock was the biggest gainer on both key indices, Sensex and Nifty. The firm’s market valuation zoomed Rs 37,702.06 crore to Rs 6,45,880.63 crore.

11) First International SME Convention 2018 to be held in New Delhi

  • The Four day first International SME (Small,Medium Enterprises) convention 2018 is being held in New Delhi from 22ndto 24th April 2018. The main focus of this convention is on inclusion of MSMEs in the Make in India program & empowering women entrepreneurs. It has been engaged by Minister of MSME (Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises) with 35 International Trade Development organizations.
  • Participants: – 150 participants from 31 countries and 400 entrepreneurs from India.
  • It helps our Indian SMEs in collaborating with International Companies for setting up manufacturing operations in India. It will also help to reach and market access of International Counterparts for promoting and exporting Made in India products and services. It will allow Entrepreneur to Entrepreneur exchange of ideas, free and fair business discussions, mutual sizing of opportunities and ways to address them.
  • Indian MSME
    i. India has more than 60 million MSMEs, especially majority of who are in low-tech areas and serve the local domestic markets.
    ii. Few of MSMEs have the ability and capability to derive access to International Markets. Highly developed economies have banked on their small and medium enterprises for both GDP Growth as well as higher employment resulting in higher per capita incomes.

12) Delhi hosts third annual 5G India Congress

  • Third edition of the Annual 5G India Congress 2018 was held on April 20, 2018 in New Delhi. It was organised by Nexgen Conferences, one of India’s leading conferences and B2B event organizers and was supported by well known brands and industry bodies including Huawei, Nokia, Cellular Operators Association of India (COAI) and 5G India Forum. The event served as a platform for all stakeholders, including network operators, Government & technology providers to come together and discuss about the 5G development for next generation communications in India.
  • Indian government is planning to roll out 5G by 2020. Besides, as per Global Mobile Operators Association (GMOA), 5G will account for 14 percent of global wireless connections by 2025. According to a recent report on Indian telecom market, the revenue from 5G-enabled digitisation in India will reach USD 25.9 billion by 2026 and 5G-enabled industry revenue is expected to add around $13 billion to operator revenue.

13) Para-athlete Shrimant Jha bags bronze at Asian Armwrestling C’ship

  • On April 2018, Differently-abled Indian arm wrestler Shrimant Jha won a bronze medal at the Asian Armwrestling Championship, which is being held from April 16 to April 22 in Kazakhstan. The 25-year-old, resident of Naxal-hit Chhattisgarh finished behind Tajikistan’s Firuz and Magolia’s Munkhbold to settle for the bronze in the 80kg senior category. Jha, who was born with four fingers in both his hands, has been doing arm-wrestling since 2010 and started representing India since 2013.He is aiming to achieve in para-olympics. He is currently working as a junior engineer in a private company.Jha, who has five world championship medals.He also secured a silver medal in Para-Arm Wrestling World Cup in Poland under 80 kg category.

14) Winners of the ‘1st Print Biennale India 2018’ given away awards in New Delhi

  • The awards of Print Biennale India 2018 were given at a function in New Delhi on April 20, 2018. ‘Print Biennale India 2018’, the first-ever International Exhibition of Graphic Prints was inaugurated in New Delhi on March 25, 2018. It was hosted by India’s National Academy of Art, the Lalit Kala Akademi. The exhibition brought together participants from 17 countries such as USA, UK, Sri Lanka, Mexico, China, Sweden, Poland, Argentina, Greece, Bangladesh, and Mauritius.
  • A total of 1126 entries of 415 artists across the globe (including 364 of Indian artists)  were received.  Winners of the ‘1st Print Biennale India 2018’:  Arup Kumar Kuity (Andhra Pradesh), Satya Narayana Gavara (Andhra Pradesh), Purvi Parmar (Gujrat), Preya Bhagat (Uttar Pradesh) and Sonal Varshneya (Uttar Pradesh). In addition to above five awards, eight other printmakers were chosen for appreciation mention by the jury of the competition.

15) IOC President Thomas Bach presents memento to Abhinav Bindra, Vijender Singh

  • On Apr. 20 2018 , International Olympic Committee(IOC) president Thomas Bach presented a memento to Indian Olympic medallist shooter Abhinav Bindra and boxer Vijender Singh. A dinner was hosted last night in honour of IOC president Bach during his second visit of India. On this occasion Union Sports Minister Rajyavardhan Singh Rathore, Indian Olympic Association (IOA) President Narinder Dhruv Batra, Association of National Olympic Committees (ANOC) President HE Sheikh Ahmad Al Sabah were also present. On this occasion IOC President presented a memento to Olympic gold medallist Abhinav Bindra and bronze medallist Vijender Singh. During the dinner former Indian Olympians and players were also present.

16) SJVN signs MoU with Ministry of Power to achieve 9200 Million Units in FY 2018-19

  • SJVN Limited, the operator of one of the largest Hydro Power Plants in India has signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with Union Ministry of Power for the year 2018-19. SJVN Ltd. is a Mini Ratna public sector undertaking under administrative control of Union Power Ministry. As per the terms of the MoU, SJVN shall strive to achieve 9200 Million Units generation during 2018-19. In FY 2017-18, it generated 9280 Million Units against the target of 8950 Million Units.
  • SJVN’s Capital Expenditure (CAPEX) target for 2018-19 has been set at Rs. 900 crore. Having four projects with capacity of 1610 MW under construction and another four projects with capacity of 2155 MW under various stages of clearances, SJVN envisages being a 5700 MW+ generating company in near future.

17) PM Modi award for Manipur’s Karang – India’s first cashless island of the country

  • On April 22,2018, Prime Minister Narendra Modi honoured officials for making Manipur’s Karang the first cashless island of the country, and implementing the Goods and Services Tax (GST) and other priority initiatives of the Centre. Karang island, a remote and backward region. It was separated from the Bishnupur district. Incentives were provided for training towards digital payments and five POS machines were installed on the island.
  • Self-help groups and youth clubs were roped in for community mobilization and parallel activities were conducted on the island for Aadhaar enrolment and opening of bank accounts. An online channel was launched to make people aware about digital payments. Due to this effort, 92 per cent of the bank accounts were linked with mobile and 70 per cent of them were linked with Aadhaar.

18) Digambarpur of West Bengal: India’s best Gram Panchayat

The central government has declared Digambarpur gram panchayat of West Bengal in South 24 Parganas district as the best panchayat in the country.  State Panchayat Minister Subrata Mukherjee. There are 2.5 lakhs gram panchayats in the country, the central government had selected 1000 and “Digambarpur under Pathar Pratima block has came out the best among those 1000 gram panchayats.

  • West Bengal Chief Minister Mamata Banerjeereminded that state was topped in job creation under the NREGA project. West Bengal has not only topped in rural employment generation, but also been able to reduce the unemployment rate by 40 per cent. On the basis of seven factors of work include the system of planning, quality of planning, different activities and level of coordination, implementation of the plan and its proper monitoring, use of Information Technology and documentation the ranking of the Gram Panchayats have been selected. Gram Panchayats in districts including Purulia, Birbhum and Burdwan have also been awarded special prizes for certain achievements.

19) PNB impounds passports of wilful defaulters

  • India’s second largest public sector bank, Punjab National Bank (PNB) has stated that Union Ministry of External Affairs (MEA) has confiscated passports of 150 wilful defaulters based on its complaints. In addition to impounding the passports, PNB has also lodged 37 FIRs against those who are not repaying loans. In March 2018, Union Finance Ministry asked banks to obtain  passport details of those who have borrowed more than Rs 50 crore and ensure swift action in case of fraud in order to prevent them from fleeing the country.
  • In wake of Rs 14000-crore fraud by diamond traders Nirav Modi and Mehul Choksi, PNB has become proactive in recovery of loans to improve its financial position. The bank has already declared 1084 wilful defaulters and published photos of 260 such defaulters in newspapers as part of its recovery drive. PNB has claimed to leverage data analytics for loan recovery and risk management, and has also tied up with a leading credit agency.

20) President Receives the First Copy of “Adi Shankaracharya: Hinduism’s Greatest Thinker”

  • On April 21,2018 The President of India, Shri Ram Nath Kovind, received the first copy of the book “Adi Shankaracharya: Hinduism’s Greatest Thinker”, from the author Shri Pavan Varma, at Rashtrapati Bhavan. Adi Shankaracharya was born over 1,200 years ago in Kerala. He was a spiritual leader, a Vedantic philosopher, a monk, a scholar and an explorer. His contributions are continued to be a guide to everyday life.  He established four Peethas – in the north, south, east and west. These Peethas were and are different – and at once they were and are the same. That is the beauty of India.

21) Nitish Kumar Launches 3 Books On Mahatma Gandhi’s Champaran Movement

  • On April 22,2018 Bihar Chief Minister Nitish Kumar released three books based on Mahatma Gandhi’s Champaran movement of 1917. Nitish Kumar released the books titled- ‘Mister M K Gandhi Ki Champaran Diary’ written by Arvind Mohan, ‘Champaran Andolan 1917’ edited by Ashutosh Partheshwar and ‘Pir Muhammad Munis: Kalam Ka Satyagrahi’ collected and edited by Srikan. The Champaran movement is acknowledged as the first Satyagraha movement inspired by Mahatma Gandhi. Talking about the 1857 rebellion, the chief minister said that a three-day function is being organised from April 23, keeping in mind the important role played by Babu Veer Kuer Singh in the revolt.

22) Boycott shooting from 2022 CWG huge setback for India: Abhinav Bindra

  • On April 19 2018, Indian Olympics Association President Narinder Batra calls for boycotting the 2022 Commonwealth Games over the absence of shooting from the event’s roster are going a “bit too extreme”. The Birmingham Organising Committee has decided to exclude shooting from the 2022 Games. National Rifle Association of India (NRAI) president Raninder Singh had called for the 2022 Games’ boycott if shooting was not reinstated at the next CWG. In the recent Gold Coast Common Wealth Games ,India has bagged 16 medals includes seven gold Medals.  Shooting has been played in every edition since Kingston 1966, except once in Edinburgh in 1970 at CWG.

23) Deepika Padukone, Virat Kohli Among TIME’s 100 Most Influential People

  • The TIME Magazine released the 100 Most Influential People List of 2018 designating individuals whose time is now. The 2018 list features the names of four self-made Indians- Bollywood actress Deepika Padukone, Indian cricket captain Virat Kohli, Ola co-founder Bhavish Aggarwal and Microsoft’s CEO Satya Nadella. The list also features the US President Donald Trump. The list of 100 Most Influential People of 2018 includes the names of actress Nicole Kidman, ‘Wonder Women’ starrer Gal Gadot, Prince Harry and his fiance Meghan Markle and singers Rihanna and Jennifer Lopez.

24) Avicii, top electronic dance music artist, found dead at 28

  • Swedish DJ Avicii, one of the world’s biggest dance music stars, has died in Oman at the age of 28. Avicii was an international pop star, performing his well-known electronic dance songs around the world. The Grammy-nominated DJ and producer, born Tim Bergling, was best known for “Levels” and “Wake Me Up.”

25) World’s oldest person dies in Japan at age of 117

  • On April 22, 2018 The world’s oldest person Nabi Tajima has died in southern Japan at the age of 117. Her town of Kikai is in Kagoshima prefecture on Kyushu, the southernmost of Japan’s four main islands. Tajima was born on August 4, 1900, and reportedly had more than 160 descendants, including great-great-great grandchildren.She became the world’s oldest person seven months ago after the death of Violet Brown in Jamaica, also at the age of 117.  US-based Gerontology Research Group announce that Japanese woman, Chiyo Yoshida, 116 years old ,is the next world’s oldest person in its records.

26) South Sudan’s military chief dies during Egypt visit

  • South Sudan confirmed that its military chief General James Ajongo has died during a visit to Egypt. General James Ajongo had taken over the role a year ago after Paul Malong was fired and put under house arrest.


1) Racial discrimination – treating someone less favorably because of their race, colour, nationality or culture.

2) Rack rent – the full market value rent of a property.

3) Rape – having sex with a person without the permission (such as if they were asleep or unconscious) or forcing them to have sex against the will.

4) Real – relating to immovable property such as buildings or land.

5) Real estate – land owned by someone who has died .In the USA it is also land and buildings used for business purposes.

6) Real property – land and buildings, minerals in the land and rights over the land.

7) Realty – another word for real property.

8) Reasonable force – necessary force.Reasonable force is a complex issue but essentially use of some force must be necessary to defend your property or yourself and the force used must be in proportion to the threat.

9) Receiver – someone appointed to:

  • sell assets to raise money to repay lenders;or
  • protect

10) Receiving – gaining control of stolen property.

11) Recognizance – an undertaking, given by someone to a court, to make sure that they do what the court requires. If they do not do as the court wishes they may have to pay a sum of money.

12) Record – the documents in a court case from beginning to end.

13) Recorder – a part time High Court judge.

14) Recovery – regaining possession of land by taking court proceedings.

15) Redemption – paying off all the money borrowed under an agreement.

16) Redundancy – being dismissed from a job because it no longer exists.

17) Registered land – any land recorded at the Land Registry. There is a system of recording and registering, at the Land Registry offices, details of land ownership and interests in land.

18) Registered office – the official address where documents can be served on a company. Also, the company’s registers can be inspected at the registered office.

 19) Registrar of Companies – an official in charge of the office which keeps records of registered companies.There is a registrar for Scotland and another one for England and Wales.

20) Reinsurance – an insurance company insuring part of a risk it is covering. If an insurance company has taken on a large insurance contract it may decide to spread the risk of loss by insuring part of the risk with another insurance company.

21) Release – means:

  • to give up a valid claim against someone;
  • to free someone from prison;or
  • a document used to cancel a claim one person has

22) Remainder – an interest which starts when a previous interest finishes .When more than one person has been left an interest in land the first person to possess an interest will have to die before the next person can possess an interest in the land, and soon.

23) Remand – being kept in prison or paying bail. If an accused person is placed on remand they are either kept in prison for a short period or have to pay bail or get someone to pay it for them. It is used for short periods before a trial starts.

24) Remedy – using the law to get compensation for damage done or for rights infringed. Also, a remedy can be using the law to prevent something from happening.

25) Renouncing probate – a proposed executor refusing to act.Sometimes when a testator dies an executor will not wish to accept appointment. The executor has to tell the Probate Registry about it in writing.

26) Rent – a regular payment to the landlord by a tenant in return for being allowed to possess and use the landlord’s property.

27) Repeat offender – a person who continues to commit the same offence.

28) Reply – a claimant (‘plaintiff’ before April 1999)’s answer to a claim. In a civil case the defendant may offer a defence to the claim, or even make a counter claim.

29) Repossession or Repossess – a mortgagee recovering vacant possession of the property mortgaged.

30) Representation – Is:

  • acting on behalf of someone else (such as a solicitor acting for a client);
  • taking someone else’s place (such as when a court gives an executor the right to deal with a dead person’s affairs); or
  • a statement in a

31) Representative action – one or more people, in a group of people with the same grievance, taking legal action representing the group.

32) Reprieve – a judge suspending or cancelling punishment for an offence.

33) Rescission – the cancellation of a contract.

34) Reservation of title – a contract which leaves ownership of the goods with the seller until the goods have been paid for.

35) Reserves – money set aside in accounts which can be spent in later years. Some types of reserve can only be spent if certain conditions are met.

36) Residence order – an order which a court issues when it has decided where a child should live, setting out details of the court’s decision.

37) Residuary legacy – what remains to be given out from an estate after all debts, taxes and specific legacies have been paid.

38) Residue – what is left of an estate after all debts, taxes, expenses and specific legacies have been dealt with.

39) Res ipsa loquitur – proof is not needed because the facts speak for themselves. If the defendant was in charge of events and an accident was caused on the face of it by negligence, then it may be presumed that the defendant was negligent unless there is evidence to the contrary. (This term is Latin.)

40) Resisting arrest – a person trying to prevent the police arresting him or her. A charge could be made of obstructing a police officer in the course of duty.

41) Resolution – a decision taken by the members of a company in a meeting.

42) Respondent – the person an action is being taken against.

43) Restitution – is:

  • an order for the return of stolen goods to the victim of the theft or for compensation to be paid to the victim;or
  • a writ, following a successful appeal, for the return of the items lost after the original

44) Restraining order – an order which a court may issue to prevent a person from doing a particular thing. For example, if someone has been harassing another person, the court may order that the harassment must stop.

45) Restriction – when placed on a piece of land the owner cannot sell or mortgage the land.

46) Restriction order – This order by the Crown Court prevents a person being discharged from hospital, to protect the public.

47) Restrictive covenant – a deed which restricts how a piece of land can be used.

48) Retainer – a payment to a barrister to act in a case.

49) Retention of title – another term for reservation of title.

50) Reversion Revocation – cancellation.

51) Revoke – to cancel or withdraw.

52) Revolving credit Agreement – a loan agreement under which a person can borrow again to top up the loan, as long as they do not go over their credit limit.

53) Right of way – a legal right obliging the owner of land to allow authorized people to cross it.

54) Rights issue – an issue of extra shares by a company. Existing shareholders can buy extra new shares in proportion to the shares they already hold. The shares are usually on sale at a lower price than the stock market price to encourage shareholders to buy. The shareholders can sell the rights if they do not wish to use them.

55) Riot – a gathering of 12 or more people using, or threatening to use, violence to achieve a common end.

56) Robbery – using or threatening to use force while carrying out a theft.