Abandonmen giving up a legal right.
Abatement is: cancelling a writ or action; stopping a nuisance; reducing the payments to creditors in proportion, if there is not enough money to pay them in full; or reducing the bequests in a will, in proportion, when there is not enough money to pay them in full.
Abduction taking someone away by force.
Ab initio from the start of something. (This phrase is Latin.)
Abovementioned describing something which has been referred to before in the document.
Abscond- when a person fails to present themselves before the court when required, such as when they have been released on bail and not returned to court.
Absolute – complete and unconditional.
Absolute discharge- someone who has been convicted of an offence being released without any penalty. (They may still have to pay compensation though.)
Absolute owner – the only owner of property such as equipment, buildings, land or vehicles.
Absolute privilege – a defence which can be used in a case of defamation if the statement from which the defamation arose was:
Abstract of title- a document, drawn up by the seller, summarising the title deeds to a property (such as a house).
Abuse of process – when criminal proceedings are brought against aperson without there being any good reason and with malice.
Abuttals – the parts of the boundaries of a piece of land which touch pieces of land alongside.
Acceptance – when an offer is accepted unconditionally and a legally binding agreement is created.
Acceptance of service – when a solicitor accepts a writ on behalf of a client.
Acceptor – the organisation (such as a bank) which will pay the cheque or bill of exchange it has accepted.
Accessory – someone who encourages or helps another person to commit a crime.
Accomplice – someone who helps another person to commit a crime.
Accordingly – a word used in legal documents which means therefore or so.
Accounts – the record of an organisation’s income, spending and financial situation.
Accumulation – reinvesting income generated by a fund back into the fund.
Accused – the person charged with a criminal offence.
Acknowledgement – admitting that someone has a claim or admitting that a debt exists.
Acquit – when a court lets a person go without any penalty. If a court decides that a person is not guilty of a crime, or the case has not been proved, it will acquit the person.
Acquittal – the court’s decision that a person is innocent of the crime they were charged with.
Action – using the law to make a claim.
Active trust – a trust where the trustees have other responsibilities rather than to just let the beneficiaries have the trust’s assets when they ask for them.
Act of bankruptcy – an act which, if carried out by a person with debts, could have led to bankruptcy proceedings against that person.
Act of God – an extreme naturally occurring event (such as an earthquake, avalanche or flood) that could not have been anticipated.
Actual bodily harm – hurting another person but less severely than would amount to grievous bodily harm.
Actual loss – an insurance term which means that the insured item no longer exists.
Actuary – an expert on pension scheme assets and liabilities, life expectancy and probabilities (the likelihood of things happening) for insurance purposes. An actuary works out whether enough money is being paid into a pension scheme to pay the pensions when they are due.
Actus reus – an act which is illegal, such as theft. (This term is Latin.)
Ademption – when a gift in a will cannot be made because the item no longer exists.
Ad hoc – for a particular purpose. For example, a committee set up to deal with a particular situation is an ad hoc committee. (This term is Latin.)
Ad idem – in agreement. (This term is Latin.)
Ad infinitum – endlessly or forever. (This term is Latin.)
Adjourned sine die – when a court case has no date fixed for it to continue.
Adjournment – postponing a court hearing.
Adjudge/adjudicate – to give an official judgement about something. For example, if someone cannot pay their debts a court may adjudge them bankrupt.
Adjudication order – the former name for a court order which made someone bankrupt. It has now been replaced with the term bankruptcy order.
Administration order – an order made by a county court when a person or a company cannot pay their debts. Normally the court orders that the debts are repaid by instalments and as long as the debtor keeps to the order the creditors cannot do anything else to recover their money.
Administrator – someone who has been appointed:to manage the affairs of a bankrupt business; or to manage the estate of someone who has died without leaving a will.
Admission – one side in a case agreeing that something the other side has alleged is true.
Admonition – reprimanding of a defendant by a judge even though the case against the defendant has been discharged (dropped).
Adoption – the system which people use to become parents, even though they are not the child’s natural parents.
Adoptive child – a child who has been legally adopted.
Adoptive parent – a person who has legally adopted a child.
Ad valorem – in proportion to the value. An ad valorem duty goes up as the value of the goods, shares and so on that it is charged on rises. (This term is Latin.)
Adverse possession – intentionally occupying land to prevent the rightful owner or tenant using it.
Adverse witness – a witness who gives evidence which damages the case of the side which asked the witness to testify for them.
Affidavit – a written statement which is sworn to be true by the person signing it. It is sworn before someone authorised by the court.
Affirmation – solemnly promising to tell the truth when giving evidence. It is an alternative to swearing an oath when the person giving evidence does not wish to.
Affray – fighting unlawfully. It is a criminal offence.
Aforementioned – describing something referred to previously in the document.
Aforesaid – describing something which has been said or referred to before in the document.
Agency – the relationship between a principal and an agent.
Agent – someone appointed to act for a principal.
Age of consent – the age when a person can consent to have sexual intercourse. In the UK it is 16.
Aggravated assault – a more serious type of assault such as one leading to actual bodily harm.
Aggravated burglary – entering premises armed with a weapon, intending to steal goods.
Aggravated damages – extra damages awarded because the defendant has caused the victim anguish, loss of self-respect or shame.
Aggravated vehicle taking – stealing a vehicle, driving it dangerously and as result injuring someone or damaging property.
Agricultural holding – a type of tenancy agreement for someone doing agricultural work. The tenant has special rights including, when the tenancy finishes, the right to compensation for improvements to the land. If the land has deteriorated the tenant must compensate the landlord.
Aiding and abetting – helping someone to commit a crime.
Airspace – the space in the atmosphere directly above a piece of land. If you own a piece of land you also own the airspace above the land.
Alias – a false name.
Alibi – a claim that a person was elsewhere when a crime was committed. If someone is accused of a crime their alibi is:
Alien – someone from a foreign country.
Alienation – transferring the ownership of property from one person to another.
All and sundry – everybody.
Allegation – an unproved statement declaring that something has happened.
Alleviate – to lessen or reduce.
Allocation rate – the proportion of money left to be invested after charges have been taken off when money is paid into a fund (such as a pension fund). For example, if the charges were 2%, the allocation rate would be 98%.
Allotment – shares allocated to a buyer. An allotment of shares in a company gives the owner (of the allotment) an unconditional right to buy the shares at a fixed price.
All that – words used in a conveyance to introduce the description of the property which is being conveyed.
Alternate director – a person appointed by a director to take the director’s place.
Alternative verdict – a person being found guilty of a less serious crime than the one they were charged with. If a more serious charge has not been proved and the defendant has been found not guilty, the defendant may be found guilty of a less serious crime instead. For example, there may not be enough evidence to convict someone of a murder but there may still be enough for a manslaughter conviction. This is known as an alternative verdict.
Amalgamation – two or more companies combining.
Ambiguity – capability of more than one meaning. When a statement’s meaning is not clear because it is capable of more than one meaning, it contains an ambiguity.
Ambulatory will – a will which can be revoked or changed while the person who made it is still living.
Amnesty – not punishing a person for an offence they have committed and removing details of the offence from the court’s records is giving the person an amnesty.
Ancient lights – the right not to have the light you receive from a neighbour’s land blocked.
Annual accounts – the summary of an organisation’s financial transactions during the year covered by their accounts, and a ‘snapshot’ of the assets and liabilities at the end of the year.
Annual return – a return which must be sent by companies to the Registrar of Companies. Each year the officers of a company have to fill in an annual return with details of the members, officers, shares issued and other information about the company. The return is then sent to Companies House for filing and is available for inspection by members of the public.
Annuitant – the person who gets paid an annuity.
Annuity – an amount paid out every year to someone. The money usually comes from an insurance policy. It can be split up into smaller amounts and be paid out more frequently, such as monthly. It is usually paid for the rest of the beneficiary’s life.
Annul to cancel:
Ante – before. (This is a Latin word.)
Antecedents – details about the past of a defendant or a person found guilty of a crime. The information about previous crimes, background and bad behaviour is given to the court before the sentence is given.
Antenuptial agreement – a legal agreement between two people who are about to get married. The agreement sets out how the couple’s assets will be divided between them if they later divorce.
Anton Piller order – an order by the High Court. It gives the applicant permission to search the defendant’s premises for evidence, inspect it and take it away. It is intended to prevent evidence being destroyed or hidden which would be relevant to the case. (Since April 1999, this has been known as a ‘search order’.)
Appeal – asking a court to overturn a lower court’s decision. If the decision of a court is disputed it may be possible to ask a higher court to consider the case again by lodging an appeal.
Appellant – the person who is appealing to a court against a decision of a lower court.
Appellate jurisdiction – the authority a court has to hear an appeal against a decision made by a lower court.
Applicant – the person asking a court to do something.
Appointee – the person who gets the benefit of the use of a power of appointment.
Appointor – the person who uses a power of appointment.
Appurtenances – minor rights in land such as a right to do something on the land.
Arbitration settling a dispute by using a referee. If a dispute goes to arbitration it is settled by an independent referee. It avoids having to use the courts to settle the dispute.
Arbitrator – the independent referee who settles a dispute without the need to use the courts.
Arraignment – a procedure at the start of a trial when details of the offences are read out and the defendants are asked whether they will plead guilty or not guilty.
Arrest – to seize someone, usually because they are suspected of committing a crime, and take them into custody.
Arrestable offence – a crime for which a person may be arrested without a warrant being needed.
Arson – setting fire to something to cause damage to it.
Articles – the clauses in a document. A company’s articles set out its rules. The articles form part of the memorandum and articles of association.
Articles of association – documents which set out a company’s rules.
Assault – when someone threatens another person with physical harm. Words on their own do not amount to assault but threatening gestures do, even if the person threatened is not touched.
Assent – a document used by personal representatives to transfer property to a beneficiary
Asset – something owned such as a building, a vehicle or money in the bank.
Assign – to formally transfer something, such as when ownership of property is transferred from one person to another.
Assignment – the formal transfer of the rights to something. An example would be a bank customer assigning to the bank the right to receive the benefits from a life insurance policy to give the bank security for a loan.
Assurance – insurance cover for an event which will definitely happen, such as death.
Assure – to transfer the ownership of something.
Assured – the person whose life is insured or who is entitled to receive the benefit from the assurance cover.
Attachment of earnings – a court order that deductions be made from a person’s earnings. The employer pays the money collected to the court and the court pays the money to the people it is owed to.
Attest – to sign to witness a signature on a document.
Attorney – a person appointed to act for another person (such as when someone cannot look after their own affairs). A formal document called a power of attorney is used to appoint the attorney. It is also the name used for a US lawyer.
Attorney General – the chief legal adviser to the Government. He or she must be a Member of Parliament (or have a seat in the House of Lords) and must be a barrister.
Audit – an independent examination of an organisation’s records and financial statements (report and accounts) to make sure that:
Auditor’s report – a report and opinion, by an independent person or firm, on an organisation’s financial records.
Autopsy – an examination of a dead body to find the cause of death.
The ship, which weighs 228,000 tonnes, is 362 metres long just 20 metres shy of the length of the Empire State Building. It is marginally bigger than its sister ship, the Harmony of the Seas, which STX France delivered to Royal Caribbean in 2016.
Kimi Raikkonen of Ferrari was in the third position. Sebastian Vettel was the first man to meet the chequered flag in 2018.
First of all we would like to congratulate you for taking our first ALL INDIA MOCK and taking the first step towards cracking CLAT 2018. We are glad to present the complete analysis of this test to passionate aspirants like you. Let’s go !!
Total number of questions : 200
Marks per question: 1
Negative marking : 0.25
Highest score: 105.75
Average score: 65.5
Cut off for top 3 NLUs : 146
Cut off for next 5 NLUS : 131
Cut off for lower NLUs : 113
|NAME OF THE SECTION||HIGHEST SCORE IN THE SECTION||TEST TOPPER’S SCORE IN THE SECTION||AVERAGE SCORE IN THE SECTION|
LIST OF TOPPERS & THEIR SCORES:
|LOGICAL REASONING||ENGLISH||GK||LEGAL APTITUDE||TOTAL SCORE|
We congratulate the toppers as they win a free LEGAL VIDEO LECTURES from foolsden.com.
We wish others luck that they get to the topper list in our next edition of FAADU MOCKS.
Next FAADU MOCK # 03 will be conducted next Sunday (01/04/2018).
Until then, it’s ciao from
Practicing previous year papers before writing the actual exam is a must!
Your preparation for any exam can never be complete without looking at the previous year question papers. Proper analysis of these papers give us a sense of what can be expected in CLAT this year, and enables us to prepare better!